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Brand

A brand is a name, symbol, sign, design or combination of which includes the identity of a person, organization and company in goods and services that are owned to differentiate from other products. Strong brands are known to the public, high associations in a product, positive perceptions by the market and high consumer loyalty.

Brands that make a product different from other products are expected to facilitate consumers in determining the products to be consumed based on various considerations and lead to loyalty. Consumer loyalty to a brand is measured by recognition, choice, and compliance with the brand.

Dlium Brand


Brand names:
Nintendo, Aqua, Eiger, Karrimor, Nescafe, Maspion, KFC, Acer, Windows, Toyota, zyrex, Sugus, Gucci, C59.

Mark:
The wing symbols on Honda, windows on Windows, horse carriages on California Fried Chicken (cfc), green circles on Sony Ericsson.

Trade character:
Ronald McDonald at McDonalds, Si Domar at Indomaret, Birds and Cats on Gery food products.


I. TYPES OF BRANDS

1. Manufacturer brand

Manufacturer brand is a brand owned by a company that produces products or services such as Soffel, Capilanos, Unilever, Philips, Tessa, Benq, Faster, Nintendo WII, Vitacharm, Vitacimin, and others.

2. Private brand

Private brands are brands owned by distributors or traders of products or services such as Zyrex Ubud that sells Everex Cloud laptops, Giant Hipermarket that sells Giant cotton, Carrefour which sells Bluesky brands, Hero who sells sugar Hero, and others.

II. BRAND STRATEGIES

Manufacturers, distributors and retailers usually carry out brand strategies through:

1. Individual branding

Individual branding is to give different brands to new products such as detergent Surf and Rinso from Unilever for different market segments.

2. Family branding

Family branding is giving the same brand to several products for the reason of making brands known to the public such as Garudafood which produces many different products with Gery's main brands including Gery Saluut, Gery Soes, Gery Toya Toya, and so on.

III. BRAND EQUITY

"Brand equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities related to a brand, names and symbols that increase or decrease the value given by an item or service to a company or customer."

"Brand equity or brand strength is the control on purchase exerted by a brand, and, by virtue of this, the brand as an asset that can be exploited to produce revenue."

"Brand equity is the positive differential effect that knowing the brand name has on customer response to the product or service".

A strong brand has a clear, valuable, and continuous differentiating power as the spearhead of a company's competitiveness and helps in marketing strategies. Brand equity is the strength of a brand that adds or decreases the value of the brand itself which can be known from the consumer's response to the goods or services sold.

Brand equity is measured by how loyal consumers are to a brand based on seven indicators:
  1. Leadership:The ability to influence the market including prices and non-price attributes.
  2. Stability: The ability to maintain customer loyalty.
  3. Market: Brand strength in improving the performance of retailers and distributors.
  4. Internationality: The ability of a brand to exit a geographical area or enter another area.
  5. Trend: Brands are becoming increasingly important for an industry.
  6. Support: Funds are spent to communicate the brand.
  7. Protection: Brands have legality.

Brand awareness

"Brand awareness is the ability of a prospective buyer to recognize or recall that a brand is part of a particular brand category."

"Brand awareness is the recognition and recall of a brand and its differentiation from other brands in the field."

Four levels of brand awareness:

a. Unaware of brand

It is the lowest level in the brand awareness pyramid where consumers are not aware of a brand.

b. Brand recognition

Minimum level of brand awareness. It is important for a buyer to choose a brand when making a purchase.

c. Brand recall

Recalling the brand is based on someone's request to mention a particular brand in a product class. This is termed recall without help, because different from the introduction task, consumers do not need to be helped to bring up the brand.

d. Top of mind

If someone directly without the help of remembrance to mention one brand, then the brand that was first spoken was the peak of the mind. The brand is the highest brand of various brands in the minds of consumers.

Four indicators to find out how much consumers are aware of a brand:
  1. Recall: How much consumers remember the brand.
  2. Recognition: How far do consumers recognize the brand.
  3. Purchase: How much consumers enter a brand into alternative choices when going to buy a product.
  4. Consumption: How far do consumers still remember a brand when using a product.

Perceived quality

Perceived quality is the customer's perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service related to the intended purpose.

Brand association

Brand association is related to memory about a product. This association does not only exist, but has a degree of strength. Engagement in a brand will be stronger if it is based on many experiences or visions to communicate.

Brand loyalty

Brand loyalty is a measure of a customer's loyalty to a brand. Loyalty has five levels:
  1. Non-loyal buyers are not at all interested in any brands offered. Brands play a small role in purchasing decisions. This type is called consumers move brand or consumer switcher or price buyer.
  2. The consumers are satisfied with the product used or not disappointed. It does not have an adequate dimension of dissatisfaction to encourage the replacement of other brands without an additional cost. This type of buyer can be called a habitual buyer.
  3. Customers are satisfied, but bear the switching costs for time, money or risk from switching to another brand. These consumers are usually called loyal consumers who feel a sacrifice when making a replacement to another brand. This type is called satisfied buyer.
  4. The consumers really like a brand. Consumer choice on a brand is based on an association including symbols, series of experiences or high quality impressions. Buyers at this level are called brand friends who are emotionally based on choosing a brand.
  5. Faithful customers who have a pride as users of a brand. A brand is very important for this customer, including functional and expression aspects.

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