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Keraton pepper (Piper bandoro)

Keraton pepper or sirih keraton (Piper bandoro) is a species of plant in Piperaceae, growing on the surface or climbing trees, up to 5-10 meters long and living in a shady place, usually under a large tree.

P. bandoro is different to Piper ornatum and Piper crocatum despite having similar morphology. Growing spread or creeping on the surface of the ground and often also climbing trees by wrapping or connecting the tip of the trunk to an object.

Dlium Keraton pepper (Piper bandoro)

The stem has several horizontal angles, maroon when young and turns green or brown when old, strong but soft and flexible wood, has segments where leaves and roots grow or spiral stems as new shoots as hooks to a support.

Heart-shaped leaf with a pointed tip, has a stalk, wavy surface and jagged edges, has a main bone in the middle with 4-7 pairs of bones pinning to each side and each has several pairs of small bones.

Leaves on the top surface are dark green doff or not shiny and have white or silver decorations on each side in the spaces between the veins that form neatly sideways lines. Leaves on the lower surface are glosy maroon.

The edges of the leaves are jagged and some decorated with white or silver lines follow the features of the serrations, while others may not have leaves. The color and features of the leaf is what distinguishes P. bandoro from other species in Piper.



Keraton pepper leaves has varying sizes is 5-14 cm wide and 7-23 cm long. Based on the dimensions of the leaf has two potential possibilities into two forms or cultivars or varieties or subspecies that consistently live in nature.

Small keraton pepper (Piper bandoro kecil) has smaller adult leaves and a fatter shape ratio with a width of about 9 cm and a length of 13 cm. Big keraton pepper (Piper bandoro besar) has bigger adult leaves and a slimmer or elongated shape ratio with a width of about 14 cm and a length of 23 cm.

Dlium Keraton pepper (Piper bandoro)

Dlium Keraton pepper (Piper bandoro)

This species grows wild in the Menoreh Mountains and Mount Merapi in Yogyakarta Province and Central Java Province in Indonesia. It thrives in the shade with an intensity of 60-75% of sunlight at an altitude of 300-1000 m.

This plant is found on the surface of the land on slopes and flat ground surface in primary forest, secondary forest, merkus pine (Pinus merkusii) forest and abandoned land in clay or chalky or rocky or sandy soil.

Dlium Keraton pepper (Piper bandoro)

Dlium Keraton pepper (Piper bandoro)

The Menoreh Mountains are geomorphologically complex landforms by endogenic and exogenic processes that work on various rocks to form the current landscape with 2500-3000 mm/year of rainfall.

Mount Merapi has the highest peak of 2930 m and is an active volcano that erupts every two to five years and routinely creates ash rain. Rainfall in this region varies between 875-2527 mm/year.

Dlium Keraton pepper (Piper bandoro)

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Piperales
Family: Piperaceae
Genus: Piper
Species: P. bandoro

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Sirih keraton or keraton pepper (Piper bandoro) and a name

Keraton pepper (Piper bandoro) in Indonesia is called Sirih Keraton, this is a rare species and there is no information on taxonomic nomenclature. So I named and entered as a new species.

Sirih keraton (P. bandoro) is different to Piper ornatum and Piper crocatum as the closest species, although they have similarities in other parts. The key differences are the morphology and features of the leaves. You can read the taxonomic nomenclature here: https://www.dlium.com/2020/01/keraton-pepper-piper-bandoro.html


I found keraton pepper at several sites in Menoreh mountains. I first saw at Samigaluh and Kokap in Kulon Progo, this in Yogyakarta Province. Then I found it again at Kaligesing in Purworejo, Central Java Province.

Menoreh mountains have complex landscape, topography is hilly to elevation of 50 m to 1050 m. This is ancient volcano and is routinely fogged on this day. I found Piper bandoro at several sites at height of 300 m to 800 m. You can see on Google Map: https://goo.gl/maps/K…

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