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Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

Tembakau or bako or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a plant species in Solanaceae, grows from cultivation, genetics does not change but is phenotypically dependent on soil conditions, microclimate and the local environment that causes different types of leaves.

N. tabacum is a seasonal plant classified as a plantation crop. Utilization of tobacco trees, especially on leaves containing nicotine (C10H14N2) for the manufacture of cigarettes and medical materials. Plants live everywhere but grow well in the two-season region and temperatures of 20-30C.


Root

Tobacco trees have taproots and penetrate the soil at a depth of 50-75 cm, while small roots spread sideways and have hair to absorb water in loose soil.

Stem

The trunk is rather round, 5 cm in diameter and about 2.5 m high but in good conditions it can be 4 m, whereas in bad conditions it is usually only 1 m. The stem is slightly soft but strong, getting to the top the smaller.

The stem is completely green and almost all parts are covered…
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Cashew (Anacardium occidentale)

Jambu monyet or mete or cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a species of plant in Anacardiaceae where receptaculum balloons and fruit can be eaten. Medium-sized tree, up to 12 m tall, wide canopy, has many branches and always green.

A. occidentale has a high canopy and is narrow or low and widens depending on environmental conditions. The leaves are located at the end of the twigs, stem-stemmed, egg-shaped upside down, most have a tapered base and ends rounded, curved inward, bare and 8-22x5-13 cm.


Cashew is a monoesis, androgynous flowers, collected in a smooth panicle with fine hair and 15-25 cm wide. Hairy petals and 4-5 mm. Pointy crown, 1 cm, white to red and hairy. The fruit is dark brown, bent and 3 cm high.

Jambu monyet is mainly cultivated for receptaculum balloons which expand after fertilization which is often referred to as "fruit". This pseudo fruit is a soft part that is swollen and yellow or red.

Receptaculum is sometimes sold on the market as "fresh f…

Kapok (Ceiba pentandra)

Kapuk randu or Java cotton or silk-cotton or kapok (Ceiba pentandra) is a plant species in Malvaceae, famous for the fruit that creates a snow-like atmosphere with scattered fibers, growing below 500 m above sea level and 1500 rainfall -2500 mm/year.

C. pentandra grows to as high as 60-70 m, tree trunks 3 m in diameter, tree bark brownish green, roots spread horizontally from the ground surface. Stems soar singly without branches or can also be branched and often also found thorns.


The fruit is a source of fiber for mattresses, pillows, clothing, heat insulation and sound proofing. The dried skin of the fruit can be used as fuel. The seeds contain oil which is used as a lubricant, lamp oil and energy raw material.

Cultivation plants generally only grow up to 10-30 m. Tree fruiting first at 4-5 years and economic age up to 60 years. Indonesia produces kapok fiber around 80,000 tons per year and Thailand 40,000-45,000 tons.

Leaves, flowers and young fruit can be eaten. Plants have biomed…

Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum)

Terong belanda or tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) is a plant species in Solanaceae, has a smell like a polar ox and the length of the petiole is about 7-10 cm. Plants having two varieties are red and yellow fruits which farmers prefer to plant the red ones.

S. betaceum has flowers in a small series on the armpits of the leaves near the tips of the branches, pink to light blue, fragrant, about 1 cm in diameter, five in number, and in the shape of a leaf clapper.


Five-pointed flowers, five stamens in front of the petal leaves, anthers hidden in conifers as opposed to pistils, fruit buds have two spaces with many prospective seeds and small pistil heads.

Egg-shaped fruit, 3-10x3-5 cm, both ends tapered, hanging, long-stemmed and the leaves of the petals do not fall out. Fruit skin is thin, smooth, reddish violet, orange red to yellowish. The juice is rather acidic, blackish to yellowish. Flat round seeds, thin and hard.

Tamarillo grows well in the mountains and plateaus at an …

China rose (Rosa chinensis)

Mawar or Bengal rose or China rose (Rosa chinensis) is a plant species in Rosaceae, shrubs up to 1-2 m tall, growing on fences or forming bushes. Leaf pinnate, 3-5 leaflets, each 2.5-6 cm long and 1-3 cm wide. The plant has three varieties is R. chinensis var. chinensis, R. chinensis var. spontanea and R. chinensis var. semperflorens.

R. chinensis has pink, red and white petals. Solitary flowers, usually four or five bundles together and have a mild aroma. Hermaphrodite flowers have radial symmetry for diameters of 4-5 cm.


Strong branches, sturdy thorns decorate each path, young stems have dark green tree bark and woody old stems have purplish brown color. The leaves are arranged alternately from the petiole and downy. Leaf pinnate, ovoid with rounded base, tapered tip and sharp saw edge. The top leaves are dark green and shiny.

Various forms of mawar have been cultivated in the garden for a long time, many varieties of garden roses and hibidation as tea roses and so on hybrid tea rose…

Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora)

Robusta coffee or Coffea robusta (Coffea canephora) is a descendant of several species of coffee plants in Rubiaceae, grows well at an altitude of 400-700 m, temperatures 24-30C with a dry period of 3-4 months in a row and 3-4 times rain with 2000-3000 mm per year.

C. canephora has two varieties, Coffea canephora var. robusta and Coffea canephora var. nganda. Shallow root system and grows into trees or shrubs up to 10 meters high. The flowering period is irregular and requires around 10-11 months for the fruit to ripen and produce the desired coffee beans.


Robusta coffee produces more crops and contains caffeine as much as 2.7%. This plant is more resistant to pests and leaf rust, so it requires fewer herbicides and pesticides on the plantation.

Very suitable for planting in wet tropical regions, loose soil and rich in organic matter, pH from 5.5 to 6.5 and in the shade of other trees. Reproductive branches grow upright. The fruit comes in the primary branch which grows flat and flexib…

Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima)

Kastuba or poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) is a plant species in Euphorbiaceae which is famous for its striking leaves. Shrubs or small trees 0.6-4 meters high, forming canopy with a diameter of about 2 meters and having dark green leaves with a length of 7-16 cm.

E. pulcherrima has single elliptical or ovoid leaves with stems mostly 2-4 curves. The tip of the leaf is pointed with the arrangement of pinnate bones and the upper part is bright red or orange, pale green, cream and white according to the variety.


The color of red leaves is created through photoperiodism which requires darkness for 12 hours for at least five consecutive days to change color. At the same time, plants need abundant light during the day for the brightest colors.

Kastuba has simple flowers forming groups in small yellow structures in the middle of each leaf bunch. Single house flowers, yellow and do not fall easily for several weeks, but stamens will fall out.

Female flowers sit between male flowers without …