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List of national parks of Indonesia

National parks are areas for conservation purposes often in the form of natural, semi-natural and advanced nature reserves that are managed or owned by the state. Each country sets their national parks differently, but generally includes wild conservation for posterity and national symbols.

National parks are one type of conservation area because they are protected by the state from human development and pollution. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) designate national parks as protected areas in Category II.

Dlium List of national parks of Indonesia

Indonesia regulates national parks in Law Number 5 of 1990 concerning Conservation of Natural Resources and Ecosystems where national parks are defined as natural conservation areas that have original ecosystems, managed with zoning systems used for research, science, education, cultural support purposes, tourism and recreation.

At present there are 53 national parks in Indonesia managed by the Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia. The following is a list of Indonesian national parks:

National Parks (year of declaration, sq Km, sq mi, Marine area), international status.

  • Bali Barat (1995, 190, 73)

  • Alas Purwo (1992, 434, 168)
  • Baluran (1980, 250, 96)
  • Karimunjawa Island (1986, 1,116, 431, most)
  • Mount Bromo Tengger Semeru (1983, 503, 194), World Network of Biosphere Reserves
  • Mount Ciremai (2004, 155, 60)
  • Mount Gede Pangrango (1980, 150, 58), World Network of Biosphere Reserves
  • Mount Halimun Salak (1992, 400, 150)
  • Mount Merapi (2004, 64, 25)
  • Mount Merbabu (2004, 57, 21)
  • Meru Betiri (1982, 580, 224)
  • Seribu Island (1982, 1,080, 420, most)
  • Ujung Kulon (1992, 1,206, 466, 443 sq km), World Heritage Site

  • Betung Kerihun (1995, 8,000, 3,100), Proposed World Heritage Site
  • Bukit Baka Bukit Raya (1992, 1,811, 699)
  • Kayan Mentarang (1996, 13,605, 5,252)
  • Kutai (1982, 1,986, 767)
  • Lake Sentarum (1999, 1,320, 510), Ramsar site
  • Mount Palung (1990, 900, 350)
  • Sabangau (2004, 5,687, 2,196)
  • Tanjung Putting (1982, 4,150, 1,370), World Network of Biosphere Reserves

  • Aketajawe-Lolobata (2004, 1,673, 646)
  • Manusela (1982, 1,890, 729)

  • Kelimutu (1992, 50, 20)
  • Komodo Island (1980, 1,817, 701, 66%), World Heritage Site, World Network of Biosphere Reserves
  • Laiwangi Wanggameti (1998, 470, 180)
  • Manupeu Tanah Daru (1998, 880, 340)
  • Mount Rinjani (1990, 413, 159)
  • Mount Tambora (2015, 716, 276)

  • Cenderawasih Bay (2002, 14,535, 5,611, 90%)
  • Lorentz (1997, 25,050, 9,670), World Heritage Site
  • Wasur (1990, 4,138, 1598), Ramsar site

  • Bantimurung - Bulusaraung (2004, 480, 185)
  • Bogani Nani Wartabone (1991, 2,871, 1,108)
  • Bunaken Island (1991, 890, 342, 97%), Proposed World Heritage Site
  • Gandang Dewata (2016, 793, 306)
  • Lore Lindu (1982, 2,290, 884), World Network of Biosphere Reserves
  • Rawa Aopa Watumohai (1989, 1,052, 406), Ramsar site
  • Taka Bone Rate Coral Reef (2001, 5,308, 2,049, most), World Network of Biosphere Reserves, Proposed World Heritage Site
  • Togean Island (2004, 3,620, 1,400, 700 sq km)
  • Wakatobi Island (2002, 13,900, 5,370, most), World Network of Biosphere Reserves, Proposed World Heritage Site

  • Batang Gadis (2004, 1,080, 417)
  • Berbak (1992, 1,628, 628), Ramsar site
  • Bukit Barisan Selatan (1982, 3,650, 1410), World Heritage Site
  • Bukit Duabelas (2000, 605, 233)
  • Bukit Tigapuluh (1995, 1,277, 493)
  • Mount Leuser (1980, 7,927, 3,061), World Heritage Site, World Network of Biosphere Reserves
  • Mount Kerinci Seblat (1999, 13,750, 5,310), World Heritage Site
  • Sembilang (2001, 2,051, 792), Ramsar site
  • Siberut (1992, 1,905, 735), World Network of Biosphere Reserves
  • Tesso Nilo (2004, 386, 149)
  • Way Kambas (1989, 1,300, 500)
  • Zamrud (2016, 314)



Salak (Salacca zalacca)

Salak or snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a species of palm plant in Arecaceae, dioesis, shrubs and not trunked, has many thorns, many shoots, grows into dense and strong clumps, spreads below or above the ground, often branching and 10-15 cm diameter.

S. zalacca has compound leaves, pinnate and 3-7 m long. Petiole, midrib and sapling have many long thorns, thin spines and a blackish-gray color. Minor leaves have a lanceolate shape, a pointed tip, 8x85 cm and a white underside by a waxy coating.

The flowers in the cob are compound, appear in the armpit of the leaf, stem, initially covered by a sheath then dry and break down like fibers. Male flowers 50-100 cm long, 4-12 cylindrical items, 7-15 cm long, reddish in the armpits of tightly arranged scales. Female flowers 20-30 cm long, stemmed long and 1-3 items.

The fruit has scaly skin, is eaten and is known as a table fruit, triangular shaped rather rounded or inverted ovoid, pointed at the base and rounded at the tip, 2.5-10 cm long, w…

God is tools

God and spirit are controversial discussions in science and even mythology will have no place among naturalists and for Darwinians. Apparently this has been final that mythology is a delusional, mystical and superstitious concept that cannot be empirically proven in the world of science.

Most scientists and science activists have agreed that god is nonsense, delusional and cannot be accommodated in the theory of evolution. This opinion can be understood methodologically and I agree with the sentences. But so many behaviors are very real and occur in the field.

I am a fieldman who goes to the wild every day, along rice fields and forests to watch insects to plants, talk to people especially in villages, visit Hindu-Buddhist temples built in the 8th century, witnessing busyness in mosques, temples and churches.

I feel something is missing in the view of naturalists and Darwinians. There are short moments that are missed in analyzes in the timeline of human evolution. These little moment…

Coffee (Coffea arabica)

Kopi gunung or mountain coffee or arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) is a plant species in Rubacea, up to 9 meters high, growing at an altitude above 700 meters above sea level, one of the most economically valuable plantation commodities among other plants.

C. arabica generally blooms after 2 years of age. Adult flowers pollinate with the opening of the petals and crown that will develop into fruit. Green skin will turn yellow and dark red with maturation. The entire process to harvest takes 6-8 months.

Flowers bloom at the beginning of the dry season and the fruit is ready to be picked at the end of the dry season. Primary branches will elongate and form new leaves at the beginning of the rainy season and prepare to produce flowers at the beginning of the upcoming dry season. The main stem has segments where a pair of opposite leaves grow.

Leaves have a line in the middle and lines to the side following the bone, wavy, thick green, muscular and tapered at the tip. The leaves grow and ar…

Chayote (Sechium edule)

Labu siam or jipang or mirliton squash or chayote (Sechium edule) is a plant species in Cucurbitaceae, growing vines and generally upwards, widely planted as food and a source of vitamin C where fresh fruit for salads or lightly cooked to remove sap.

S. edule grows on the ground or climbs large trees up to 12 m high, stems are green, not woody and are usually cultivated anywhere as long as they have support. The ends of the stems are threaded to reach support or link themselves.

The leaves are oval, 10-25 cm wide, have many angles as the bones depend on variety and the surface has hair. Male flowers in groups and solitary female flowers, yellowish green, four or five petals and pistils in the middle.

The fruit hangs on the stem, is irregular in egg shape, slightly flattened and has rough wrinkles, 10-20 cm long, green or yellow, has a thin skin, white insides with a single hole, large and flat. Some varieties have thorny skin.

The fruit is boiled briefly to remove sap and eaten for a v…

Crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

Crab-eating macaque or long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is a primate species in Cercopithecidae, brown with a lighter color abdomen and whitish hair on the face, polygamy, genome size 2946.84 Mb, 21 pairs of chromosomes, highly adaptive and wild animals that are able to follow human civilization.

M. fascicularis has at least 10 recorded subspecies: Dark-crowned long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. atriceps), Burmese long-talied macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. aureus), Con Song long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. condorensisis).

Common long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. fascicularis), Simeulue long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. fuscus), Kemujan long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. karimondjawae), Lasia long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. lasiae)

Philippine long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. philippensis), Maratua long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. tua), Nicobar crabeating macaque (Macaca fascic…