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Menoreh Mountains

Menoreh Mountains are mountainous areas stretching in the western region of Kulon Progo Regency in Yogyakarta Province and to the east of Purworejo Regency and Magelang Regency in Central Java Province, Indonesia. This mountain range has a fertile karst region, dense vegetation and caves as the home of a variety of bats.

Some formations include sandstone, clay rock, and limestone in the Middle Eocene; andesite rocks, andesite and tuff breccias as a result of Menoreh Volcano activity in the Oligocene; limestone and coral deposited in Lower Miocene; and the colluvium material deposited in the Quarter Period.

Dlium Menoreh Mountains

The Ayamayam peak (1,021 meters) is the highest point with geomorphology having a complex shape. Other peaks are Suroloyo Peak (1,019 m), Widosari Peak (944 m) and Kukusan Peak (890 m) in the north. Rivers that originate in these mountains include the Blubas River in Magelang and the Benowo River in Purworejo.

The complexity of Menoreh Mountains is an endogenic and exogenic process that works on various rocks to form unique landscapes and various ornamentations in the cave including the Kiskendo Cave and Seplawa Cave. The east and west are bordered by steep cliffs, one of which is the Kelir cliff that is hundreds of meters high.

The karst area in Menoreh is approximately 15 square kilometers, stretching from north to south. The northern and southern parts are hilly, while the central part is more gentle. This karst area is covered by dense vegetation, thick topsoil supports community activities in the agricultural and plantation sectors.

The biodiversity of the Menoreh karst region is still not fully revealed. but at least 47 bird species have been recorded from only one observation location on the north side. Other important notes include two protected butterfly species, Troides Helena and Troides amphrysus.

More than 10 species of bats live in caves as roosting sites including two extinct vulnerable species, Nycteris javanica and Rhinolophus canuti. The existence of bats, especially Microchiroptera, provides an ecological contribution to controlling insect populations.



God is tools

OPINION - God and spirit are controversial discussions in science and even mythology will have no place among naturalists and for Darwinians. Apparently this has been final that mythology is a delusional, mystical and superstitious concept that cannot be empirically proven in the world of science.

Most scientists and science activists have agreed that god is nonsense, delusional and cannot be accommodated in the theory of evolution. This opinion can be understood methodologically and I agree with the sentences. But so many behaviors are very real and occur in the field.

I am a fieldman who goes to the wild every day, along rice fields and forests to watch insects to plants, talk to people especially in villages, visit Hindu-Buddhist temples built in the 8th century, witnessing busyness in mosques, temples and churches.

I feel something is missing in the view of naturalists and Darwinians. There are short moments that are missed in analyzes in the timeline of human evolution. These lit…

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