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Transportation in Indonesia

Transportation is the movement of people or goods from one place to another using a vehicle driven by humans or machines. The most common modes of transportation in Indonesia include flights and ferries for inter-island transportation services, and various types of road vehicles for land transportation such as buses, trains, taxis and motorcycle taxis ("Ojek").

Trains are only limited to Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi, but will be widely available in the future. Flights, ferries, buses, taxis and motorbike taxis including the Go-Jek and Grab application services are present on almost all islands in Indonesia.

Dlium Transportation in Indonesia


Indonesia is an archipelagic country and water transportation is an important means of connecting many places. Many ships are used including various types of ferries, passenger ships, and small motorized vessels. The ferry serves the adjacent island strait route.

Ferries are operated 24 hours per day at busy crossings such as Sumatra, Java and Bali. Some international ferries also serve the Malacca Strait between Sumatra, Malaysia, Singapore, and small Indonesian islands such as Batam.

Some networks also serve longer sea connections to remote islands, especially in eastern Indonesia. PT Pelni is a state-owned service company serving the route on a schedule every two to four weeks. Other private vessels also serve on various other routes.

Some of the busy sea ports are Medan, Cilacap, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, Makassar, Manado, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Samarinda, Ambon, Sorong, Manokwari, Jayapura and Merauke.

The river is the key to transportation in several forested areas. Long boats go along rivers and efficient ways to reach many places in Kalimantan, Sumatra and Papua. Indonesia has 21,579 km of river transportation lines, about half of which are in Kalimantan and one quarter each in Sumatra and Papua.


Bus and taxi

Bus services are found in many areas which are contacted by highways, especially in Sumatra, Java, and Bali. In smaller areas many highway transportation is served by minibuses or small vans. Many cities have taxi and motorcycle taxi services. Indonesia has around 200,000 km of paved roads.


Indonesia has 6,458 km of active railroad tracks and is only available in Java, North Sumatra and Sulawesi for now. Trains in Indonesia are operated by PT KA, a state-owned company. The main cities traversed by railroad tracks are Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Semarang, Surabaya, Makassar and Parepare.

Air Transport

The country has international and local airports for a total of more than 500 spots. The main cities for flights are Jakarta, Medan, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, Denpasar, Makassar, Kupang, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Samarinda, Ambon, Manado, Sorong, Manokwari, Jayapura and Merauke.

Airlines serve local routes in Indonesia including Garuda Indonesia, Citilink Airlines, Lion Air, Merpati Airlines, Batik Air, Wings Air, Sriwijaya Air, Batavia Air, Mandala Airlines, Kal Star Aviation, Susi Air, Tiger Air and Air Asia.



God is tools

OPINION - God and spirit are controversial discussions in science and even mythology will have no place among naturalists and for Darwinians. Apparently this has been final that mythology is a delusional, mystical and superstitious concept that cannot be empirically proven in the world of science.

Most scientists and science activists have agreed that god is nonsense, delusional and cannot be accommodated in the theory of evolution. This opinion can be understood methodologically and I agree with the sentences. But so many behaviors are very real and occur in the field.

I am a fieldman who goes to the wild every day, along rice fields and forests to watch insects to plants, talk to people especially in villages, visit Hindu-Buddhist temples built in the 8th century, witnessing busyness in mosques, temples and churches.

I feel something is missing in the view of naturalists and Darwinians. There are short moments that are missed in analyzes in the timeline of human evolution. These lit…

China rose (Rosa chinensis)

Mawar or Bengal rose or China rose (Rosa chinensis) is a plant species in Rosaceae, shrubs up to 1-2 m tall, growing on fences or forming bushes. Leaf pinnate, 3-5 leaflets, each 2.5-6 cm long and 1-3 cm wide. The plant has three varieties is R. chinensis var. chinensis, R. chinensis var. spontanea and R. chinensis var. semperflorens.

R. chinensis has pink, red and white petals. Solitary flowers, usually four or five bundles together and have a mild aroma. Hermaphrodite flowers have radial symmetry for diameters of 4-5 cm.

Strong branches, sturdy thorns decorate each path, young stems have dark green tree bark and woody old stems have purplish brown color. The leaves are arranged alternately from the petiole and downy. Leaf pinnate, ovoid with rounded base, tapered tip and sharp saw edge. The top leaves are dark green and shiny.

Various forms of mawar have been cultivated in the garden for a long time, many varieties of garden roses and hibidation as tea roses and so on hybrid tea rose…

Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri)

Porang or iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri) is a plant species in Araceae, the leaves are pseudo stems with a height of 40-180 cm and a diameter of 1-5 cm, tubular, green with irregular white patches, each branching point grows bulbil colored brown and yellow tubers.

A. muelleri has pseudo stems and leaves that are bright green to dark green and have greenish white patches. The surface of the stalk is smooth, while the leaves are smooth wavy. Ellipse-shaped leaves with pointed tips.

When flushing has 3, 4-5, 5-6 and finally 6 minor leaf strands with 3 small leaf stems. Young leaves have edges that are light purple, green and will end yellow with a width of 0.3-0.5 mm. Canopy has a width of 50-150 cm.

Stems grow on tubers with a diameter of 25-50 mm and height 75-175 cm. The color of the tuber is brownish or beige on the outer surface and brownish on the inside, rather oval and stringy roots, weight 450-3350 grams, fine tissue, 4-5 months dormant period and 35-55% glucomannan content.