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Teak (Tectona grandis)

Jati or teak (Tectona grandis) is a large, straight-trunked tree, with large leaves and falling in the dry season, 30-40 meters high, clear bole of up to 20 meters and a first-class and luxurious timber producer. This plant is strong in areas with rainfall of 1500-2000 mm/year and temperatures of 27-36C in lowlands and highlands.

T. grandis has the best growth in soil with a pH of 4.5-7, not much water, lots of Ca and phosphorus. Teak has slow growth with germination of less than 50% which makes the propagation process naturally difficult so it is not enough to cover market demand.

Dlium Teak (Tectona grandis)

The stems are crooked in unmanaged natural forests, while the blimbing variant has a grooved stem and pring variant looks like books like bamboo. The bark is grayish yellow brown, shallowly broken in an elongated groove. Quadrilateral and tuberous young twigs.

Jati can grow giant for hundreds of years for 45 meters high and 1.8-2.4 meters in diameter, but on average 11 meters high and 0.9-1.5 meters in diameter. Trees are considered good if the stripes are large, have straight trunks and a few branches. The best wood comes from trees over 80 years old.

The leaves are large, elliptical and face the stalk, downy and have glandular hair on the lower surface. Leaves in shoots measuring 60–70 cm x 80–100 cm, while old trees shrink to around 15x20 cm. The young leaves are reddish and emit red sap. The Rf value in teak leaves was 0.58-0.63.

The compound flower is located in a large panicle, 40x40 cm wide or larger, containing hundreds of florets, arranged in an umbrella and appearing at the far end of a twig at the top of a tree canopy. The crown rate is 6-7, whitish, 8 mm and one house.

The fruit is round-shaped rather flat, measuring 0.5 - 2.5 cm, rough hair with a thick core and up to four seeds, but generally only one grows. The fruit is covered by an enlarged enlarged petal resembling a balloon.

This tree is usually produced conventionally using seeds, but the production of seeds with large amounts at a certain time becomes limited due to the hard outer seed layer. Some efforts to overcome this problem are soaking the seeds in water, heating with fire or hot sand, and adding acids, bases to bacteria.

Teak wood has class II strength and class I-II durability. This wood is very expensive because it is very resistant to termite attacks, beautiful and unchanged by the weather. Porch wood is light brown, gray brown to dark red brown, while the type of sapwood on the outside is white and yellowish gray.

Although hard and strong, teak wood is easy to cut and work so it is preferred to make furniture and carvings. Smooth sanded wood has a slippery surface such as greasy and smooth texture. The circle patterns on the wooden porch are clear and produce beautiful features.

Jati wood is classified as luxury wood and is mostly processed into garden furniture, interior furniture, handicrafts, panels, stairs, dock materials, rail bearings, bridges, commercial ships and warships.

Kingdom: Plantae
Divisi: Magnoliophyta
Kelas: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Lamiales
Famili: Lamiaceae
Genus: Tectona
Spesies: T. grandis



Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri)

Porang or iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri) is a plant species in Araceae, the leaves are pseudo stems with a height of 40-180 cm and a diameter of 1-5 cm, tubular, green with irregular white patches, each branching point grows bulbil colored brown and yellow tubers.

A. muelleri has pseudo stems and leaves that are bright green to dark green and have greenish white patches. The surface of the stalk is smooth, while the leaves are smooth wavy. Ellipse-shaped leaves with pointed tips.

When flushing has 3, 4-5, 5-6 and finally 6 minor leaf strands with 3 small leaf stems. Young leaves have edges that are light purple, green and will end yellow with a width of 0.3-0.5 mm. Canopy has a width of 50-150 cm.

Stems grow on tubers with a diameter of 25-50 mm and height 75-175 cm. The color of the tuber is brownish or beige on the outer surface and brownish on the inside, rather oval and stringy roots, weight 450-3350 grams, fine tissue, 4-5 months dormant period and 35-55% glucomannan content.

God is tools

OPINION - God and spirit are controversial discussions in science and even mythology will have no place among naturalists and for Darwinians. Apparently this has been final that mythology is a delusional, mystical and superstitious concept that cannot be empirically proven in the world of science.

Most scientists and science activists have agreed that god is nonsense, delusional and cannot be accommodated in the theory of evolution. This opinion can be understood methodologically and I agree with the sentences. But so many behaviors are very real and occur in the field.

I am a fieldman who goes to the wild every day, along rice fields and forests to watch insects to plants, talk to people especially in villages, visit Hindu-Buddhist temples built in the 8th century, witnessing busyness in mosques, temples and churches.

I feel something is missing in the view of naturalists and Darwinians. There are short moments that are missed in analyzes in the timeline of human evolution. These lit…

Javanese grasshopper (Valanga nigricornis)

Wooden grasshoppers or wooden walang or Javanese grasshopper (Valanga nigricornis) are grasshopper species in Acrididae and have around 18 subspecies, most of which are endemic to various island groups in Indonesia. This insect has a very broad sexual dimorphism where males have a length of 45-55 millimeters and females 15-75 mm.

V. nigricornis is yellowish brown or yellowish or green with bluish black marks. The back wing is rose red when flying. The nymphs are pale green and dark. They live in forests, bushes and really like the leaves of the giant sensitive plant (Mimosa diplotricha) and giant sensitive tree (Mimosa pigra).

Javanese grasshopper has one generation every year where four eggs are placed on moist soil in forest clearing. The eggs are not active throughout the dry season and it takes six to eight months to hatch.

The eggs hatch into nymphs and pass seven instar stages before becoming winged adults. Wood grasshoppers are solitary insects and do not form flocks, but outbre…