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Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

Ketela pohon or castilla or ubi kayu or singkong or cassava or Manihot utilissima (Manihot esculenta) is a tropical and subtropical annual shrub in Euphorbiaceae, widely known as a staple food producing carbohydrates and leaves as vegetables.

M. esculenta can grow as high as 7 meters and little branch, taproot with number of enlarged branch roots to be bulbs to be eaten. Root tuber has a diameter of 4-6 cm and a length of 50-80 cm depending on the cultivar, brown and reddish, the inside is white or yellowish.

Dlium Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

Cassava tubers will not last long even in the cool room. Symptoms of damage are marked in blue due to the formation of cyanide acid which is toxic to humans. Tubers are a source of energy that is rich in carbohydrates but very poor in protein. A good source of protein on leaves containing amino methionine.

Increased ketela pohon cultivation is in line with the rapid population growth and stagnation of rice and wheat production. Bulbs are an additional food source and have become one of the main foodstuffs in many of the world. Castilla can be eaten raw where the main content is starch with a little glucose so it is rather sweet.

In certain circumstances, especially when oxidized, toxic glucosides will form as cyanide acid (HCN) and give a bitter taste. Sweet bulbs have at least 20 mg HCN per kilogram while bitter tubers have at least 50 times more depending on the content of hydrocyanic acid in the roots.

Ubi kayu is cooked in various ways, widely used in a variety of dishes. Boiled to replace potatoes and complementary dishes. Cassava flour is used to replace wheat flour and is suitable for people with gluten allergies.

Leaves for fresh or cooked salads for a variety of dishes, while tuber skin for animal feed. Ubi kayu after harvesting is usually peeled to be dried under the hot sun to be processed into tapioca flour or starch as raw material for various foods, chewing gum, glue, textile industry and furniture.



Nutritional content of singkong per 100 grams includes 121 cal calories, 62.50 grams of water, 40.00 grams of phosphorus, 34.00 grams of carbohydrates, 33.00 milligrams of calcium, 30.00 milligrams of vitamin C, 1.20 grams of protein, iron 0.70 milligrams, 0.30 grams of fat and 0.01 B mg of vitamin B1. Leaves have a protein content of 6.9 grams, 165 mg calcium, 54 mg phosphorus, 2 mg iron, Vitamin A 11000 IU and Vitamin C 275 mg.

Currently there are 10 M. esculenta varieties on the market which are grouped into food and industry. Varieties for food include N1 Mekarmanik, Adira 1, Malang 1, Malang 2, while industrial varieties include N1 Mekarmanik, Adira 2, Adira 4, Malang 4, Malang 6, UJ 5 and UJ 3.

Varieties for food have a pulverized tuber texture with HCN levels of less than 50 milligrams per kilogram and have a non-bitter taste, while for industries it has a starch content or dry content of about 0.6 grams per kilogram.

World cassava production is estimated to reach 192 million tons in 2004 with Nigeria 52.4 million tons, Brazil 25.4 million tons, Indonesia 24.1 million tons, Thailand 21.9 million tons (FAO, 2004). Most of the production is produced in Africa 99.1 million tons and 33.2 million tons in Latin America and the Caribbean Islands.

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Genus: Manihot
Species: M. esculenta

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