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Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

Tembakau or bako or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a plant species in Solanaceae, grows from cultivation, genetics does not change but is phenotypically dependent on soil conditions, microclimate and the local environment that causes different types of leaves.

N. tabacum is a seasonal plant classified as a plantation crop. Utilization of tobacco trees, especially on leaves containing nicotine (C10H14N2) for the manufacture of cigarettes and medical materials. Plants live everywhere but grow well in the two-season region and temperatures of 20-30C.

Dlium Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)


Tobacco trees have taproots and penetrate the soil at a depth of 50-75 cm, while small roots spread sideways and have hair to absorb water in loose soil.


The trunk is rather round, 5 cm in diameter and about 2.5 m high but in good conditions it can be 4 m, whereas in bad conditions it is usually only 1 m. The stem is slightly soft but strong, getting to the top the smaller.

The stem is completely green and almost all parts are covered with fine white hair. Around the hair there are glands that emit concentrated substances with a pungent odor. The segments of the stem are thickened with leaves and buds.


The leaves are oval or round depending on the variety. Oval-shaped leaves have tapered ends, while rounded ones have blunt edges. The bones are pinnate, the edges are slightly bumpy and slippery.

The upper layer is the parenchyma palisade, the lower layer is spongy parenchyma and the whole is filled by layers of epidermal cells with stomata that are spread evenly. Cuticle thickness, parenchymal cell walls and the area of intercellular space vary depending on the growing environment.

The number of leaves in each plant is 28-32 strands. Leaves and stems are connected by short or no stem at all. The size of the leaves varies greatly according to the conditions of the place of growth and variety, while the thickness and smoothness of the leaves is influenced by humidity.

The process of leaf maturation usually starts from the tip of the leaf then the bottom is marked by a change in color from green to yellow to brown at the end and then the bottom.


Compound flowers in panicles, petals are curved and have five beaks. The crown is trumpet-shaped, the upper part is pink or a dark red that is cracked, while the lower part is white. A flower usually has five stamens attached to the crown with one shorter than the other.

Prospective fruit is located on the base of the flower and has two enlarged spaces. Each room contains many anatropical seeds. This fruit will be connected by a pistil stalk with a pistil on it.

The pistil is located in the tube adjacent to the anthers. The height of the pistil and anthers is almost the same which causes the tobacco plants to self-pollinate, but it may also be cross-pollinated.


Fruit ripens within three weeks after fertilization. The seeds are 1 cm in size and in 0.5 grams contain about 6000 seeds. Each tobacco tree can produce an average of 25 grams. Seeds need dormancy and it takes approximately 2-3 weeks to germinate.

If the seeds are picked in a ripe setting and dried slowly with a temperature that is not too high it will germinate at least 95% after 5 days. Sprouts can last for years if stored properly and in a dry state.


Tobacco trees have many varieties that are developed and cultivated throughout the world. The Indonesian government recommends a number including Grompol Jatim 1, Kasturi, Kasturi 1, Kasturi 2, Coker 176, Cangkring 45, Kemloko 1, Kemloko 2, Kemloko 3, Sindoro 1, Parancak N-1, Prancak N-2, Prancak 95, Bligon 1, Virginia, and Bojonegoro 1.


Tobacco plants generally do not want a very dry or very wet climate and strong winds will cause plants to collapse. Lowland tobacco grows well in 2,000 mm/year rainfall and upland tobacco at 1,500-3,500 mm/year.

N. tabacum requires a lot of sunlight, an open place, a temperature of 20-30C, a height of 0-900 m above sea level, pH 5-6, loose soil, drainage, good water and air management.

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Nicotiana
Species: N. tabacum



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Sonokeling or Java palisandre or Indian rosewood ( Dalbergia latifolia ) is a species of plant in the Fabaceae, a large tree producing hardwood, medium weight and high quality, rounded leaves, thin and broad pods, highly adaptive, grows in dry and rocky landscapes with lots of sunlight. D. latifolia has medium to large size, cylindrical stems, up to 40 m high with a ring of up to 2 m, the bark is brownish gray and slightly cracked longitudinally. The crown is dense, dome-shaped and sheds leaves. The leaves are compound and pinnate oddly with 5-7 strands that have different sizes and appear alternately on the shaft. The leaves are round or elongated in width or heart, the upper surface is green and the surface is pale green. The flowers are small, 0.5-1 cm long and clustered in panicles. The pods are green to brown when ripe and are elongated lanceolate, pointed at the base and tip. The pods have 1-4 seeds which are soft and brownish. Indian rosewood grows at elevations below 600 m,

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