Skip to main content

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

Tembakau or bako or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a plant species in Solanaceae, grows from cultivation, genetics does not change but is phenotypically dependent on soil conditions, microclimate and the local environment that causes different types of leaves.

N. tabacum is a seasonal plant classified as a plantation crop. Utilization of tobacco trees, especially on leaves containing nicotine (C10H14N2) for the manufacture of cigarettes and medical materials. Plants live everywhere but grow well in the two-season region and temperatures of 20-30C.

Dlium Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

Root

Tobacco trees have taproots and penetrate the soil at a depth of 50-75 cm, while small roots spread sideways and have hair to absorb water in loose soil.

Stem

The trunk is rather round, 5 cm in diameter and about 2.5 m high but in good conditions it can be 4 m, whereas in bad conditions it is usually only 1 m. The stem is slightly soft but strong, getting to the top the smaller.

The stem is completely green and almost all parts are covered with fine white hair. Around the hair there are glands that emit concentrated substances with a pungent odor. The segments of the stem are thickened with leaves and buds.

Leaf

The leaves are oval or round depending on the variety. Oval-shaped leaves have tapered ends, while rounded ones have blunt edges. The bones are pinnate, the edges are slightly bumpy and slippery.

The upper layer is the parenchyma palisade, the lower layer is spongy parenchyma and the whole is filled by layers of epidermal cells with stomata that are spread evenly. Cuticle thickness, parenchymal cell walls and the area of intercellular space vary depending on the growing environment.



The number of leaves in each plant is 28-32 strands. Leaves and stems are connected by short or no stem at all. The size of the leaves varies greatly according to the conditions of the place of growth and variety, while the thickness and smoothness of the leaves is influenced by humidity.

The process of leaf maturation usually starts from the tip of the leaf then the bottom is marked by a change in color from green to yellow to brown at the end and then the bottom.

Flower

Compound flowers in panicles, petals are curved and have five beaks. The crown is trumpet-shaped, the upper part is pink or a dark red that is cracked, while the lower part is white. A flower usually has five stamens attached to the crown with one shorter than the other.

Prospective fruit is located on the base of the flower and has two enlarged spaces. Each room contains many anatropical seeds. This fruit will be connected by a pistil stalk with a pistil on it.

The pistil is located in the tube adjacent to the anthers. The height of the pistil and anthers is almost the same which causes the tobacco plants to self-pollinate, but it may also be cross-pollinated.

Seed

Fruit ripens within three weeks after fertilization. The seeds are 1 cm in size and in 0.5 grams contain about 6000 seeds. Each tobacco tree can produce an average of 25 grams. Seeds need dormancy and it takes approximately 2-3 weeks to germinate.

If the seeds are picked in a ripe setting and dried slowly with a temperature that is not too high it will germinate at least 95% after 5 days. Sprouts can last for years if stored properly and in a dry state.

Varieties

Tobacco trees have many varieties that are developed and cultivated throughout the world. The Indonesian government recommends a number including Grompol Jatim 1, Kasturi, Kasturi 1, Kasturi 2, Coker 176, Cangkring 45, Kemloko 1, Kemloko 2, Kemloko 3, Sindoro 1, Parancak N-1, Prancak N-2, Prancak 95, Bligon 1, Virginia, and Bojonegoro 1.

Cultivation

Tobacco plants generally do not want a very dry or very wet climate and strong winds will cause plants to collapse. Lowland tobacco grows well in 2,000 mm/year rainfall and upland tobacco at 1,500-3,500 mm/year.

N. tabacum requires a lot of sunlight, an open place, a temperature of 20-30C, a height of 0-900 m above sea level, pH 5-6, loose soil, drainage, good water and air management.

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Nicotiana
Species: N. tabacum

Comments

Popular

God is tools

OPINION - God and spirit are controversial discussions in science and even mythology will have no place among naturalists and for Darwinians. Apparently this has been final that mythology is a delusional, mystical and superstitious concept that cannot be empirically proven in the world of science.

Most scientists and science activists have agreed that god is nonsense, delusional and cannot be accommodated in the theory of evolution. This opinion can be understood methodologically and I agree with the sentences. But so many behaviors are very real and occur in the field.


I am a fieldman who goes to the wild every day, along rice fields and forests to watch insects to plants, talk to people especially in villages, visit Hindu-Buddhist temples built in the 8th century, witnessing busyness in mosques, temples and churches.

I feel something is missing in the view of naturalists and Darwinians. There are short moments that are missed in analyzes in the timeline of human evolution. These lit…

Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri)

Porang or iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri) is a plant species in Araceae, the leaves are pseudo stems with a height of 40-180 cm and a diameter of 1-5 cm, tubular, green with irregular white patches, each branching point grows bulbil colored brown and yellow tubers.

A. muelleri has pseudo stems and leaves that are bright green to dark green and have greenish white patches. The surface of the stalk is smooth, while the leaves are smooth wavy. Ellipse-shaped leaves with pointed tips.


When flushing has 3, 4-5, 5-6 and finally 6 minor leaf strands with 3 small leaf stems. Young leaves have edges that are light purple, green and will end yellow with a width of 0.3-0.5 mm. Canopy has a width of 50-150 cm.

Stems grow on tubers with a diameter of 25-50 mm and height 75-175 cm. The color of the tuber is brownish or beige on the outer surface and brownish on the inside, rather oval and stringy roots, weight 450-3350 grams, fine tissue, 4-5 months dormant period and 35-55% glucomannan content.

China rose (Rosa chinensis)

Mawar or Bengal rose or China rose (Rosa chinensis) is a plant species in Rosaceae, shrubs up to 1-2 m tall, growing on fences or forming bushes. Leaf pinnate, 3-5 leaflets, each 2.5-6 cm long and 1-3 cm wide. The plant has three varieties is R. chinensis var. chinensis, R. chinensis var. spontanea and R. chinensis var. semperflorens.

R. chinensis has pink, red and white petals. Solitary flowers, usually four or five bundles together and have a mild aroma. Hermaphrodite flowers have radial symmetry for diameters of 4-5 cm.


Strong branches, sturdy thorns decorate each path, young stems have dark green tree bark and woody old stems have purplish brown color. The leaves are arranged alternately from the petiole and downy. Leaf pinnate, ovoid with rounded base, tapered tip and sharp saw edge. The top leaves are dark green and shiny.

Various forms of mawar have been cultivated in the garden for a long time, many varieties of garden roses and hibidation as tea roses and so on hybrid tea rose…