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Coffee (Coffea arabica)

Kopi gunung or mountain coffee or arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) is a plant species in Rubacea, up to 9 meters high, growing at an altitude above 700 meters above sea level, one of the most economically valuable plantation commodities among other plants.

C. arabica generally blooms after 2 years of age. Adult flowers pollinate with the opening of the petals and crown that will develop into fruit. Green skin will turn yellow and dark red with maturation. The entire process to harvest takes 6-8 months.

Dlium Coffee (Coffea arabica)

Flowers bloom at the beginning of the dry season and the fruit is ready to be picked at the end of the dry season. Primary branches will elongate and form new leaves at the beginning of the rainy season and prepare to produce flowers at the beginning of the upcoming dry season. The main stem has segments where a pair of opposite leaves grow.

Leaves have a line in the middle and lines to the side following the bone, wavy, thick green, muscular and tapered at the tip. The leaves grow and are arranged side by side in the armpits of branches and twigs. A pair of leaves is located in the same plane in the stem and twigs that grow horizontally.

Flowers are arranged in groups, each 4-6 buds and each leaf armpit produces 2-3 flower groups. The crown is white and fragrant. Green petals, base covering the ovaries containing two ovules. Stamens consist of 5-7 short stems.

The fruit has a length of 12-18 mm, light green then turns dark green, yellow, red and dark red to ripen. The fruit consists of exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp, epidermis and seeds. Old Mesokarp will be slimy and sweet. Mature seeds are white and hard.



Many varieties of arabica coffee are developed in the world to suit certain environments. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Center recommends six varieties: Kartika 1 (1.8 tons/ha), Kartika 2 (1.9 tons/ha), Abesiania 3 (0.7 tons/ha), S795 (1.2 tons/ha), USDA 762 (1.2 tons/ha) and Andungsari 1 (1.9 tons/ha).

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Coffea
Species: C. arabica

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