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Crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

Crab-eating macaque or long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is a primate species in Cercopithecidae, brown with a lighter color abdomen and whitish hair on the face, polygamy, genome size 2946.84 Mb, 21 pairs of chromosomes, highly adaptive and wild animals that are able to follow human civilization.

M. fascicularis has at least 10 recorded subspecies: Dark-crowned long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. atriceps), Burmese long-talied macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. aureus), Con Song long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. condorensisis).

Dlium Crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis)


Common long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. fascicularis), Simeulue long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. fuscus), Kemujan long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. karimondjawae), Lasia long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. lasiae)

Philippine long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. philippensis), Maratua long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. tua), Nicobar crabeating macaque (Macaca fascicularis ssp. umbrosus).

Characteristics

This species has hair on the face that varies from one individual to another individual. This color difference becomes an indicator to help identify individuals based on sex and age.

Newborns have black hair with pink faces and ears. After one week the hair color on the face skin will fade and turn reddish gray. After six weeks the black hair turns brown.



Adult crab-eating macaque has yellowish brown, gray and dark brown skin hair, but the lower abdomen and inner legs are always brighter. The hair above the head grows backwards, sometimes forming a crest.

The hair on the cheeks is stretched forward, under the eyes there are always hairless and triangular skin, the skin on the buttocks is also hairless. Scientists say the hair color of M. fascicularis varies depending on age, season and environment.

M. fascicularis weighs 3-7 kg and 40-50 cm long does not include tail. These monkeys have spade-shaped incisors, canines and teeth for chewing food. Flat nose with narrow tip.

The tail has a length of 80-110% times body length, cylindrical, muscular and covered by short hairs. An important characteristic of this species is it has a cheek pouch to store food temporarily. These cheek pockets allow them to put food into their mouths quickly and chew elsewhere.

Reproduction

M. fascicularis reaches maturity or the minimum age for marriage is 3.5-5 years. Sexual maturity in males is 4.2 years and females 4.3 years. Menstrual cycle is 28 days and lust is 11 days. Breeding interval is 24-28 months, pregnancy period is 160-186 days.

Females give birth to one or two babies weighing 230-470 grams. Children are weaned at 5-6 months of age and 14-18 months of care. Marriage can occur at any time and ovulation takes place spontaneously on average on the 12th to 13th day of the lust cycle.

Habitat

Crab-eating macaque lives in tropical rain forests, seasonal forests, mangrove swamp forests to montane forests at an altitude of 1300 m and temperate climate forests, grasslands and dry areas that have bushes and cacti. They are often found in disturbed habitats including riparian areas and secondary forests near cultivation.

At first this primate life was arboreal and only a few lived on the ground. Primates that have progress towards terrestrial life are generally stronger and more capable of protecting themselves from predators. The self defense used is by living in groups.

M. fascicularis avoids steep slopes to avoid predators and to save energy. Areas that overlap with neighboring groups are also avoided, so there are no meetings with other groups.

Food

Crab-eating macaque is an omnivore with fruits, leaves, flowers, mushrooms, young grasses, insects, snails, young grasses and crabs. But 96% of their food consumption is fruit. They eat gum (Havea sp), shoots of rice (Oriza sativa), corn, hermit crabs (Acanthurus leucosternon) and ground crab (Scylla serrata).

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Macaca
Species: M. fascicularis
Subspecies: M. f. fascicularis, M. f. aurea, M. f. umbrosa, M. f. atriceps, M. f. condorensis, M. f. fusca, M. f. lasiae, M. f. tua, M. f. karimondjawae, M. f. philippensis.

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