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Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)

Cengkeh or clove or Eugenia aromaticum (Syzygium aromaticum) is a plant species in Myrtaceae, growing up to 10-20 m, large leaves and dark red flowers are grouped in terminals, dried flower-scented buds, widely used as cooking spices, medical ingredients, oils and typical cigarettes Indonesia.

S. aromaticum has flowers in a pale hue and gradually turns green, then bright red when ready for harvest. Cloves are harvested 1.5-2.0 cm long and consist of long petals which end in four diffuse sepals and four unopened petals that form a small middle ball.

Dlium Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)

Clove has a number of varieties including Afo, Posi-posi, Siputih, Zanzibar, and Sikotok. Zanzibar has lush leaves and dark green, low branches on the stem and produces light green flower buds. Siputih cloves have branches at the top of the stem, lush leaves and yellow-green flower buds.

Morphology of S. aromaticum is classified into 3 types: Maluku (Afo, Tibobo, Tauro, Sibela, Indari, Air Mata, Dokiri and Daun Buntal), wild (Raja, Amahusu, Gunung Haria and Bogor Forest), and cultivation (Zanzibar, Siputih, Sikotok and Ambon).

Flower buds have a size of 2 cm and appear after 4-6 years. Flower buds are harvested at maturity before flowering, then dried in the sun until they are dark brown. Wood, leaves and fruit are harvested for processing into clove oil.

Cengkeh is one of the spices which is often used as a preservative agent for food and medicinal plants which has antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Oils are often used for antiseptics, antifermentation, disinfectants, analgesics, and anesthetics for toothache, treating diarrhea, dyspepsia and sore throats.



Clove tree growth requires a tropical and subtropical climate with 2,332 mm/year of rainfall, hillsides and river banks at an altitude of 0-1500 m and a temperature of 20-30C. Trees are propagated vegetatively and generatively. Cultivation in sandy soil, pH 4.5-6, good drainage and high content of organic compounds.

Trees produce at maximum age at 7 years and continue to increase until they are 30 years old. After 30 years and over, productivity will decline. High production in a certain year is usually followed by a decrease in production in the next 1-2 years due to large harvests followed by two small harvests.

Essential oils contain eugenol, caryophyllene, furfural, vanillin, methyl salicylate, pyrocatechol, methyl ketone, valeric aldehydes, eugenin, isoeugenitol, isoeugenitin, eugenitin, tannin, mucilage, sitosterol, estigmaterol, resins, cellulose, pinene, oleanolic acid and fixed oil.

Eugenol is the main bioactive compound from cloves for 9381-14650mg/100g, while isoeugenol is a pale yellow oil extracted from clove oil, hydrophobic, soluble in organic solvents and has a spicy taste.

Eugenol and isoeugenol are used for perfume and aroma therapy, food flavoring, vanilla making, antiseptics, local analgesics, UV absorbers, biocides and antioxidants for plastics and rubber, clove cigarettes and incense. Dried clove leaves are finely ground as a vegetable pesticide to control Fusarium.

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Syzygium
Species: S. aromaticum

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