Skip to main content

Cacao tree (Theobroma cacao)

Kakao or cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) is a perennial plant species in Malvaceae in the tropics, in the form of a tree 10 m high but in cultivation it will be limited to only 5 m to expand the canopy and multiply branches so that more fruit grows where the seeds are processed as chocolate.

T. cacao has flowers like other Sterculiaceae members that grow directly from the stem, perfect and single flowers, 3 cm in diameter, but appear in panicles because often a bunch of flowers emerges from a single bud.

Dlium Cacao tree (Theobroma cacao)

The flowers are white and are ready to be pollinated within a few days especially by the Forcipomyia fly, winged ants, aphids and some Trigona bees which usually occur at night. The main pests of this plant are Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera papayae.

Cacao trees generally cross-pollinate and have their own incompatibilities, but some varieties are capable of self-pollinating and produce higher-selling commodity types.

The fruit grows from pollinated flowers, has a fruit size much larger than the flower and is round to elongated. The fruit consists of five lines and the space where seeds grow. Young fruit is green to purple, but the outer skin is usually yellow when ripe.

Seeds arranged on the placenta that grow from the base of the fruit on the inside. The seeds are black and protected by soft white aryl. Endospermia contains high levels of fat. Pulp is generally fermented for three days then the seeds are dried in the sun.

Cocoa likes shade with a potential yield of 50-120 fruits/tree/year. It often grows in clumps along the river bank where the roots may be inundated for a long time in a year. It grows at an altitude of 300 meters with rainfall of 1000 to 3000 mm/year.

In general, cacao trees start to bear fruit and are harvested when they are 4-5 years old. Mature trees may have 6000 flowers a year, but only produce about 20. About 300-600 seeds from about 10 fruits are needed to produce 1 kg of cocoa paste.

T. cacao has three varieties. Forastero grows in the lowlands, has harder seeds and cheaper prices on the market, Criolo or fine cocoa can be planted in higher, rarest and most valuable plains. Trinitario or hybrids from Forastero and Criolo.

Trinitario has a high productivity character, quickly undergoes a generative phase after the age of 2 years, is resistant to VSD (Vascular Streak Dieback), harvests throughout the year, fermentation is only 6 days, controls market share and has a preferred chocolate flavor.

The beans are fermented to produce cocoa butter and powder. The distinctive taste of chocolate develops during the fermentation process. Chocolate contains large amounts of polyphenols, especially flavonoids such as flavan-3-ols which are responsible for bitterness and astringence in raw cocoa beans. Polyphenols can be found in such high quantities that raw seeds cannot be eaten.

Cocoa powder is an ingredient for making cakes, ice cream, snacks, milk and others. The character of the chocolate flavor is savory with a distinctive aroma so that it is liked by many people especially children and teenagers. The Indonesian National Standardization Agency has issued rules on standardization of chocolate and chocolate products for SNI 7934:2014 code.

Cocoa flavonoids and their derivatives are very useful for the prevention of cardiovascular and degenerative disorders, antioxidants are protective against free radicals and other degenerative species prevent LDL oxidation, modulate vascular homeostasis, and inhibit platelet aggregation.

The metabolomic study that can be done is to determine the quality of cocoa beans from each variety in terms of the metabolites it produces. In addition, metabolomic studies can also be carried out to optimize the fermentation process that produces quality cocoa beans when viewed in terms of metabolites and their relationship to the chocolate flavor they produce.

Cocoa beans have 45-53.2% fat in the form of cocoa butter consisting of various fatty acids. Cocoa beans contain up to 10% phenols and flavenoids which are antioxidants that have the potential to inhibit cancer or cardiovascular disease, as well as potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. Also contains 1-3% theobromine and caffeine, alkaloids which stimulate the central nervous system.

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Theobroma
Species: T. cacao



Kewu Plain

The Kewu Plain or Prambanan Plain is a fertile volcanic plain stretching between the southern slopes of Mount Merapi and north-west of the Sewu Mountains . This plain is now included in Sleman Regency in Yogyakarta Province and Klaten Regency in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The Kewu Plain was the seat of the Medang Empire during the 8th century AD to the 10th century AD and the Mataram Sultanate in the 16th century AD. For more than a thousand years this region played an important role in the history of ancient Indonesia and had many important historical relics. If each temple is counted, the Javanese period in the 9th century has produced thousands of Hindu and Buddhist temples spread from the Dieng Plateau, Kedu Plain, to the Kewu Plain in the early history of Indonesia. The area is very rich in monuments where many archeological sites are only a few kilometers away, even some Hindu and Buddhist sites are only a few meters away. The Prambanan Plain is the center of impor

Redflower ragleaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides)

Sintrong or ebolo or thickhead or redflower ragleaf ( Crassocephalum crepidioides ) are plant species in Asteraceae, terma height 25-100 cm, white fibrous roots, generally grow wild on the roadside, yard gardens or abandoned lands at altitude 200- 2500 m. C. crepidioides has erect or horizontal stems along the soil surface, vascular, soft, non-woody, shallow grooves, green, rough surface and short white hair, aromatic fragrance when squeezed. Petiole is spread on stems, tubular and eared. Single leaf, spread out, green, 8-20 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, longitudinal or round inverted eggshell with a narrow base along the stalk. Pointed tip, flat-edged or curved to pinnate, jagged rough and pointed. The top leaves are smaller and often sit. Compound flowers grow throughout the year in humps that are arranged in terminal flat panicles and androgynous. Green cuffs with orange-brown to brick-red tips, cylindrical for 13-16 mm long and 5-6 mm wide. The crown is yellow with a brownish red

Guinea grass (Panicum maximum)

Guinea grass or buffalo grass or green panic ( Panicum maximum ) is a plant species in Poaceae, annual grasses, growing upright to form clumps, strong, cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions for very high value as fodder. P. maximum reproduces in very large pols, fibrous roots penetrate into the soil, upright stems, green, 1-1.5 m tall and have smooth cavities for diameters up to 2.5 mm. Propagation is done vegetatively and generatively. Ribbon-shaped leaves with a pointed tip, very many, built in lines, green, 40-105 cm long, 10-30 mm wide, erect, branched, a white linear bone, often covered with a layer of white wax, rough surface by hair short, dense and spread. The flower grows at the end of a long and upright stalk, open with the main axis length to more than 25 cm and the length of the bunches down to 20 cm. Grains have a size of 3x4 mm and oval. Seeds have a length of 2.25-2.50 mm and each 1 kg contains 1.2 - 1.5 million seeds. Guinea grass has two varieties. P