Skip to main content

Avocado (Persea americana)

Alpukat or avocado (Persea americana) is a plant species in Lauraceae, a small tree with a height of 3-10 m, taproot, woody stem, round, brown, many branched and fine-haired twigs. Leaf buds are reddish and have tight hair, while old leaves are green and bare.

P. americana has a single leaf crammed at the end of a branch with a stem length of 1.5-5 cm, shaped long to round egg length, thick as a leather, pointed tip and base, the flat edge sometimes slightly curled upward, bone pinnate, 10-20 cm long and 3-10 cm wide.

Dlium Avocado (Persea americana)

Large avocado trees produce millions of flowers in a season. Compound flowers, androgynous, arranged in panicles that come out near the tips of the branches, greenish yellow. A single female flower with a long stamen and ends with an enlarged anthers.

Each flower has three stamens in the inner stamen and six in the outer stamen. Hermaphrodite flowers but dichogamy in which each flower blooms twice at different times. Female flowers bloom on the first day and male flowers bloom the next day.

The fruit is spherical or ovoid, has a length of 5-20 cm, is green or yellowish green or has purple spots, weighs 200-400 grams, but can sometimes be 600-700 grams depending on the variety. A tree produces around 200 fruits/tree.

Ripe fruit contains soft mesocarp, yellowish green and fatty with a thin layer of skin bordering the seed coat. Signs of maturity when the fruit is shaken will sound because the seeds are released from the mesocarp and the cavity is widened.



Alpukat have a great fruiting season in December-February and a reserve fruiting season in May-June. Each fruit has a large seed in the middle, spherical, 2.5-5 cm in diameter and reddish white.

P. americana grows at an altitude of 5-1500 m, but will flourish at 200-1000 m. This plant requires strong winds for the pollination process, but no more than a speed of 62.4 km / h which will break the soft and brittle branches.

Minimum rainfall for growth is 750-1000 mm/year, while other varieties are at 2500 mm/year. The need for sunlight ranges from 40-80% and a temperature of 12.8-28.3C, but can tolerate 2C and some varieties survive at -4.5C.

Avocado grows optimally requires loose soil, not easily flooded, good drainage systems and contains lots of organic matter. Good types of soils are sandy loam, clay loam and alluvial loam with a pH of 5.6-6.4.

Every fruit 100 g contains vitamin B and vitamin K, vitamin C, vitamin E and potassium, also contains phytosterols and carotenoids such as lutein and zeaxanthin. About 75% of energy comes from fat where 67% is monounsaturated fat as oleic acid.

Fruit has a function as an important staple in foods that have limited access to other fatty foods such as meat, high fat fish and milk. Alpukat oil is more expensive than ordinary salads and cooking oils.

The fruit is not sweet, but has a different taste and smooth texture for savory and sweet dishes. Avocados are common in vegetarian cooking as a substitute for meat in sandwiches and salads for high fat content.

Generally served raw, although some cultivars can be cooked for a short time without becoming bitter. Avocados are often used for milkshakes and are sometimes added to ice cream and other desserts.

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Angiosperms
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Laurales
Family: Lauraceae
Genus: Persea
Species: P. americana

Comments

Popular

Sweet inga (Pithecellobium dulce)

Asem londo or blackbead or guamĂșchil or sweet inga or Inga javana (Pithecellobium dulce) are species of flowering plants in Fabaceae, have many branches, irregular canopy, always green, 10-15 m high, thorny stems, drought and dry soil resistant at altitude up to 1,500 m.

P. dulce has compound leaves, 4-10 cm panicle stems, 7.5 mm leaf stalks, asymmetrical ovate leaves with pointed to round edges, double pinnate bones, shiny dark green on the top surface, light green on the bottom surface, 1.5-3.5x1-2 cm and not hairy.


Greenish-white flowers in panicles containing 1520 items, fragrant and 12 cm long but appear shorter because of the circular, smooth hair and 1-2 cm long stems. The petals are tubular and 1.5 mm long, the crown is tubular and 3.5 mm long. White flower stalks.

Flowers produce green pods that turn pink and black when ripe and open to release pink or white aryl, sweet and edible. The pods are flat, curled and 1 cm wide. Aryl contains asymmetrical flat seeds, shiny black, 9x7…

Soursop (Annona muricata)

Sirsak or soursop (Annona muricata) is a plant species in Annonaceae, a small tree, growing upright to a height of 10 m, stem diameter of 10-30 cm and young branches are hairy, evergreen, edible fruit and have a sour or sweet taste to some varieties.

A. muricata has long to oval leaves, 8-16 cm long and 3-7 cm wide, dark green and shiny without hair on the upper side, paler and hairless on the lower side. Petiole has a length of 4-13 mm and without hair.


The flower stalks are 2-5 mm long and woody, appear opposite to the leaves or in addition to near the petioles, each with one or two flowers each. The stems of each flower are woody, smooth or hairless and 15-20 mm long with small bractlets closer to the base of thick hairy.

The outer petals are thick and yellowish, meet at the edges without overlapping and are broadly ovoid, 2.8-3.3 cm with 2.1-2.5 cm, tapering to a point with a heart-shaped base, thick and covered with long hair, sleek, externally soft and silky tangle with soft hair…

Pucung (Dysdercus poecilus)

Pucung or cotton stainer or red cotton bugs (Dysdercus poecilus) are animal species in Pyrrhocoridae, winged insects, dimorphism for sex where women have larger size but are the same for shape and color as males, social life in large communities in host plants.

D. poecilus has three pairs of long black legs with three segments and a pair of very long black antennas with four segments on the head on the left and right. The head is dark red, a pair of black eyes and a narrow neck with white and black transverse lines.


Dorsal has red and black colors. The upper back has a black equilateral triangle with a pointed angle downwards. The middle back has a black transverse line and is connected by a long black triangle to the tip of the rounded buttocks.

Ventral has a black color with white and alternating stripes. The six thighs are dark red and the buttocks are pink. Males are smaller in size and have fewer ventral lines.

Pucung lives in a large community and is willing to share a place with…

Twoleaf nightshade (Solanum diphyllum)

Twoleaf nightshade (Solanum diphyllum) is a species of plants in Solanaceae, upright shrubs grow in shade, 1-2 m tall, rounded stems, dense, green-purple brown, short hairy, stopping cells, cornered young twigs and widely cultivated as plants decorate with bright yellow ripe fruit.

S. diphyllum has leaves that are alternating, solitary or paired in twigs with generative organs. Some are stemmed for 1-1.5 cm. The leaves are oval to oblique round eggs, dynamic base, flat or wavy edges, tapered or rounded edges, 1-14.5 cm long, 0.5-4 cm wide and have short hair.


Flowers facing leaves 5-25 mm long. Has a 2 mm handle, brownish purple, straight and unbranched. Hook 5-10 mm, greenish to brown and curved. The petals have five ears, resembling kupula, pale green, 1-5 mm long and short haired.

Flowers have five crowns, coincide, star-shaped, yellowish white, 2-5 mm long. Has five stamens, free and facing the crown. Short and yellowish green pistil. The stigma is yellow, attached to the base and …

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)

Manggis or mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical plant species in Clusiaceae, up to 25 m tall, thick exocarp, bright green and turns reddish purple after ripe with 1-2 large seeds and edible white mesocarp layers.

G. mangostana produces sweet, pungent, watery, slightly fibrous fruits with vesicles filled with liquid, mesocarp surrounding each almond-shaped and large-sized seeds. The resulting bundle seeds are basically asexual embryos.


Mangosteen is obligate apomixis where seeds do not originate from fertilization and are thought to have a narrow genetic diversity, It is estimated that only one clone in nature and has the same properties as its parent. Diversity may be due to environmental and genetic factors due to natural mutations in line with the history of the mangosteen.

Young fruit does not require fertilization to grow, pale green or white under the canopy. The fruit enlarges for 2 to 3 months and then turns dark green with growth in size increasing in diameter from 6-…