Skip to main content

Common water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

Enceng gondok or common water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a free-floating perennial aquatic plant species in Pontederiaceae, sometimes rooted in the soil, has no stem and has a high growth rate and easily spreads through waterways in tropical and sub-tropical regions.

E. crassipes has wide, thick, shiny, ovoid leaves that can rise above the surface of water as high as 1 meter. The leaves extend to 10-20 cm on stems that float with a bulb to float above the water surface, long stems, sponges and rounded.

Dlium Common water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

Fibrous roots, free of hanging and purple-black. The upright stalk supports a single flower, most of which is mauve to pink with six petals. Grows in tropical to subtropical deserts or warm temperate desert to the rainforest zone, minimum temperature 12-35C and pH 5.0-7.5.

Azotobacter chroococcum as a nitrogen-fixing bacterium is concentrated around the base of the petiole, but does not repair nitrogen unless the plant suffers from extreme nitrogen deficiency. Fresh plants contain prickly crystals, HCN, alkaloids, triterpenoids and can cause itching.

Common water hyacinth is one of the fastest growing plants, reproducing mainly through stolons which eventually form buds. Each plant can also produce thousands of seeds every year and these seeds can last more than 28 years.

The flowers are pollinated by long-tongued bees and can reproduce both sexually and clonally. The level of invasive and the ability to clone oneself and most of the spots tend to be part of the same genetic form.





Enceng gondok grow in shallow ponds, wet and swampy soil, slow flow of water, lakes, water reservoirs and rivers. This plant can adapt to extreme changes in water levels, currents and changes in nutrient availability, pH, temperature and toxins in water.

Rapid growth is mainly caused by water containing high nutrients, especially rich in nitrogen, phosphate and potassium. Salt content can inhibit growth where these plants will increase throughout the rainy season and decrease when the salt content rises in the dry season.

E. crassipes is widely regarded as a weed that increases evapotranspiration which has broad leaves and rapid growth, decreases the intensity of light into the waters which causes dissolved oxygens and dead plants will descend to the bottom of the waters which accelerates silting.

These plants also often disrupt water transportation, especially for people still dependent on rivers, increase habitat for human disease vectors and reduce the aesthetic value of the aquatic environment.

Even so many people use E. crassipes for paper making materials, compost, biogas, furniture, handicrafts, as a growth medium for straw mushrooms etc.

Common water hyacinth also plays a role in capturing heavy metal pollutants including cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and nickel (Ni) respectively 1.35 mg/g, 1.77 mg/g, and 1.16 mg/g. They also absorb chromium (Cr) up to 51.85 percent at pH 7. Also able to absorb pesticide residues.

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Commelinales
Family: Pontederiaceae
Genus: Eichhornia
Species: E. crassipes

Comments

Popular

Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia)

Sonokeling or Java palisandre or Indian rosewood ( Dalbergia latifolia ) is a species of plant in the Fabaceae, a large tree producing hardwood, medium weight and high quality, rounded leaves, thin and broad pods, highly adaptive, grows in dry and rocky landscapes with lots of sunlight. D. latifolia has medium to large size, cylindrical stems, up to 40 m high with a ring of up to 2 m, the bark is brownish gray and slightly cracked longitudinally. The crown is dense, dome-shaped and sheds leaves. The leaves are compound and pinnate oddly with 5-7 strands that have different sizes and appear alternately on the shaft. The leaves are round or elongated in width or heart, the upper surface is green and the surface is pale green. The flowers are small, 0.5-1 cm long and clustered in panicles. The pods are green to brown when ripe and are elongated lanceolate, pointed at the base and tip. The pods have 1-4 seeds which are soft and brownish. Indian rosewood grows at elevations below 600 m,

Bush sorrel (Hibiscus surattensis)

Bush sorrel ( Hibiscus surattensis ) is a plant species in Malvaceae, annual shrub, crawling on the surface or climbing, up to 3 meters long, thorny stems, green leaves, yellow trumpet flowers, grows wild in forests and canal edges, widely used for vegetables and treatment. H. surattensis has stems with spines and hairs, branching and reddish green. Petiole emerges from the stem with a straight edge to the side, up to 11 cm long, sturdy, thorny, hairy and reddish green. The leaves have a length of 10 cm, width of 10 cm, 3-5 lobed, each has a bone in the middle with several pinnate veins, sharp tip, sharp and jagged edges, wavy, stiff, green surface. Flowers up to 10 cm long, trumpet-shaped, yellow with a purple or brown or red center, solitary, axillary. Epicalyx has forked bracts, linear inner branches, spathulate outer branches. Stalks up to 6-7 cm. The seeds have a length of 3-3.5 mm and a width of 2.5 mm. Bush sorrels grow in pastures, marshes, abandoned fields and plantations,

Lawe (Abroma augustum)

Lawe or devil's cotton ( Abroma augustum ) is a plant species in Malvaceae, a small tree or bush that is erect, up to 10 m tall but generally 2-3 m tall, stems and twigs covered with star hair that are sharp, brittle and cause skin itching, sometimes also with glandular hair. A. augustum has a single leaf, alternating, has a long stalk, a heart-shaped base, a pointed tip with a very variable base whose leaves near the base of the branch have a circular shape from the egg to the heart, 3-5 curves, diameter 20-37 cm, while the leaves near the tips of twigs have elongated shapes with smooth toothed edges. The flowers gather in cymes at the tips of the twigs or face leaves, 1-4 buds, 1-3 cm long stems and 6-8 mm bractea. Hanging flowers, 3-5 cm in diameter, 5 angles and 1-3.5 cm long stems. The petals have 5 leaves, share a deep, triangular, 15-20 mm long, 6 mm wide and greenish. The crown has 5 leaves, spoon-shaped, 2-3.5 cm long, 1 cm wide, dark purple or red or yellow, concave an