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Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)

Manggis or mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical plant species in Clusiaceae, up to 25 m tall, thick exocarp, bright green and turns reddish purple after ripe with 1-2 large seeds and edible white mesocarp layers.

G. mangostana produces sweet, pungent, watery, slightly fibrous fruits with vesicles filled with liquid, mesocarp surrounding each almond-shaped and large-sized seeds. The resulting bundle seeds are basically asexual embryos.

Dlium Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)

Mangosteen is obligate apomixis where seeds do not originate from fertilization and are thought to have a narrow genetic diversity, It is estimated that only one clone in nature and has the same properties as its parent. Diversity may be due to environmental and genetic factors due to natural mutations in line with the history of the mangosteen.

Young fruit does not require fertilization to grow, pale green or white under the canopy. The fruit enlarges for 2 to 3 months and then turns dark green with growth in size increasing in diameter from 6-8 cm and remaining hard.

The fruit contains a variety of polyphenols including xanthones and tannins which guarantee that astringents can inhibit insects, fungi, viruses, bacteria and animal predators when the fruit is not ripe. The change in color and softening of the exocarp into a natural process that shows the fruit can be eaten and the seeds have finished developing.

Manggis thrives and produces fruit at 25-35C with a humidity of more than 80%. Temperature 38-40C makes the leaves and fruit prone to sunburn. Tree shoots prefer shade and mature shade-tolerant trees.



G. mangostana has a weak root system and prefers deep, well drained soils with high water content and often grows on river banks. Plants do not like lime soil, sandy soil, alluvial soil or sandy soil with low organic matter content.

Mangosteen trees require well-distributed rain throughout the year at least 40 mm/month and a dry season of 3-5 weeks. Sensitive to water availability. Maturation of the fruit takes 5-6 months with the harvest occurs when the purple pericarps.

The tree starts to bear fruit in 5-6 years, but it usually takes 8-10 years with 200-300 fruits/trees/season and at the age of 30-45 years will produce 3,000 fruits/trees/season. Trees will continue to produce at the age of 100 years or more.

The fruit has a delicacy and aroma that is very soft. The main volatile components that have caramel, grass and butter notes as part of the aroma of mangosteen are hexyl acetate, hexenol and α-copaene. Endocarp is the white part of the fruit with simple nutrients. Dried mangosteen can also be eaten.

Manggis is usually served as fresh fruit or processed for a variety of salads. The fruit has been used to treat skin infections, wounds, dysentery, urinary tract infections and gastrointestinal complaints.

Fruit rind extract is used as a source of natural dyes for textiles with brown, dark brown, reddish purple, mainly applied to traditional ikat weaving and batik textiles in Indonesia. Branches are chewed and wood is used to make spears and furniture.

Fruit skin contains xanthonoids such as mangostin and phytochemicals and others. Polysaccharide and xanthones compounds are found in fruit, leaves and wood core. The fully ripe fruit contains xanthones, garthanin, 8-disoxygartanin, and normangostin.

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Clusiaceae
Genus: Garcinia
Species: G. mangostana

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