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Common guava (Psidium guajava)

Jambu biji or common guava (Psidium guajava) is a plant species in Myrtaceae, a small tree with upright stems and sympodial branches, 2-10 m tall, many branches, smooth bark, greenish brown, flowering throughout the year, growing in the tropics at altitudes up to 1200 m and very adaptive.

P. guajava has young rectangular-shaped stems and old hard woody stems. The surface of the trunk is slippery with a thin layer of skin and is easily peeled off. When the bark is exfoliated, the inside of the stem is green.

Dlium Common guava (Psidium guajava)

The leaves have a single structure and give off a distinctive aroma when squeezed, sitting cross-linked with the position facing and bones pinned. The shape of the leaf varies influenced by genetics and environment including oval, taper and inverted egg rounds.

Flowers have greenish white pistils with lobed head shapes. Polyandrous stamens, 0.5-1.2 cm long and white with a cream-colored head. Each flower has 180-600 stamens which the greater the diameter of the flower the more the number of stamens.

Single fruit is very dense and heavy, edible, thin skin and smooth to rough surface. Fruits have many variations for shape, size, color and taste, depending on the variety. Small and hard seeds grow in the middle of the fruit.

Fruits contain vitamin C, vitamin A, iron, calcium and phosphorus. The content of vitamin C is five times more than oranges. The fruit also contains saponins with oleanolic, Morin-3-O-α-Llyxopyranoside, morin-3-O-α-L-arabopyraoside and flavonoids, guaijavarin and quercetin.



Fruit skin contains 56-600 mg of ascorbic acid, while leaves contain flavonoids, tannins, ellagic acid, triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin and other chemical compounds. Tree bark contains 12-30% tannins or polyphenols, resins and calcium oxalate crystals.

Roots are also rich in tannins, leukocyanidins, sterols and gallic acid. Twigs contain calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium. Fluoride concentrations range from 0.02-0.11 ppm, copper (0.02-0.14 ppm), iron (2.86-5.14 ppm), zinc (0.31-0.57 ppm), manganese ( 0.00-0.26 ppm) and lead (0.00-0.11 ppm).

The fruit is usually eaten fresh, processed into various forms of food and drinks, treatments including improving digestion, lowering cholesterol, antioxidants, relieving fatigue and lethargy, dengue fever and canker sores. Ethanol extract of leaves as an antioxidant.

Leaves for anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, analgesic, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, reduce fever, increase platelets and inhibit the growth of rotavirus. Bark and roots to cure dysentery, vaginal discharge, thrush, ringworm, inflammation of the stomach, swollen gums and sunburned skin.

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Subfamily: Myrtoideae
Tribe: Myrteae
Genus: Psidium
Species: Psidium guajava
Varieties: Psidium guajava var. cujavillum, Psidium guajava var. guajava, Psidium guajava var. minor.

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