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Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica)

Layang-layang api or barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is a species of animal in the Hirundinidae, a distinctive warbler with a blue-black top, long forked tail, a pair of legs strong but not strong enough to fly non-stop all day long and often perch in large groups on power lines and man-made structures.

H. rustica has a length of 17-19 cm including 2-7 cm of elongated outer tail feathers, a wingspan of 32-34.5 cm and a weight of 16-22 g. The top part is blackish blue, the bottom part is white with a long vertical line forming a curve to the stomach.

Dlium Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica)


The forehead, chin and throat are reddish brown. Elongated forked tail feathers and a white stripe along the outer end of the upper tail. The female has a shorter tail band and a paler underside. Juveniles are browner, the underside is whiter and do not have a long tail band.

Barn swallow likes open areas including meadows and farmlands with water at altitudes up to 3,000 m. These birds usually grab prey in open areas above ground or above shallow water including large flies, aphids and flying ants.

Females lay 2-7 eggs, reddish white, 20x14 mm, weigh 1.9 g and 5% are shells. The incubation period is usually 14-19 days with another 18-23 days before any altricial children become adults. The mother feeds for about a week before migrating.

The success of hatching is 90% and the mature survival rate is 70-90%. Mortality rates are 70-80% in the first year and 40-70% in adults. Most survived to less than four years, even though the record age was over 11 years.



Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Hirundinidae
Genus: Hirundo
Species: Hirundo rustica
Subspecies: Hirundo rustica ssp. erythrogaster, Hirundo rustica ssp. gutturalis, Hirundo rustica ssp. mandschurica, Hirundo rustica ssp. rustica, Hirundo rustica ssp. savignii, Hirundo rustica ssp. transitiva, Hirundo rustica ssp. tytleri

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