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Amboyna pine (Agathis dammara)

Damar or amboyna pine (Agathis dammara) is a plant species in the Araucariaceae, a large tree with a height of up to 65 meters, a long, round cylindrical trunk with a diameter of more than 2 meters, cultivated as an industrial forest in tropical mountains for sap that is processed into copal.

A. dammara has a grayish or light brown or black bark with slightly reddish, finely dimpled to silvery and thin scales or with lots of resin or coarse blisters, peeling off in small pieces so as to be slightly epiphytic.

Dlium Amboyna pine (Agathis dammara)

Opposite leaves, oval-shaped, very variable even on a single tree, tapering towards a rounded tip, thick fleshy and light to dark green in color. Young trees are lanceolate and sharp. Old tree is long oblong with rounded top, 6-8 cm long, 2-3 cm wide with 1-8 mm stalk.

Ripe seed cones are ovoid, 10.5x9.5 cm, cylindrical with loose surfaces, basal bracts form loose cupules and are often square, conical scales are almost triangular in shape, upper corners of scales are broad and thin rounded. The seeds are subovoid, 1.5 cm long and up to 1.3 cm long on one wing.

Amboyna pine grows naturally in lowland rain forests to an altitude of 1,200 meters. It is planted for harvesting resin which is processed into copal. Resin is the sap that comes out when the bark is injured. The sap will flow out and freeze in the air. Over time this sap will harden. Sap is also obtained from underground deposits.

The wood density is 380-660 kg/m3, whitish in color, not durable, not strong and is only used as a board under the roof. Damar tree is also preferred as a shade plant for gardens and roadsides. Upright header rises with a branch that is not too wide.

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Araucariaceae
Genus: Agathis
Species: Agathis dammara



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Porang or iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri) is a plant species in Araceae, the leaves are pseudo stems with a height of 40-180 cm and a diameter of 1-5 cm, tubular, green with irregular white patches, each branching point grows bulbil colored brown and yellow tubers.

A. muelleri has pseudo stems and leaves that are bright green to dark green and have greenish white patches. The surface of the stalk is smooth, while the leaves are smooth wavy. Ellipse-shaped leaves with pointed tips.

When flushing has 3, 4-5, 5-6 and finally 6 minor leaf strands with 3 small leaf stems. Young leaves have edges that are light purple, green and will end yellow with a width of 0.3-0.5 mm. Canopy has a width of 50-150 cm.

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God is tools

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I am a fieldman who goes to the wild every day, along rice fields and forests to watch insects to plants, talk to people especially in villages, visit Hindu-Buddhist temples built in the 8th century, witnessing busyness in mosques, temples and churches.

I feel something is missing in the view of naturalists and Darwinians. There are short moments that are missed in analyzes in the timeline of human evolution. These lit…

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