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Black bamboo (Gigantochloa atroviolacea)

Pring wulung or black bamboo (Gigantochloa atroviolacea) is a plant species in Poaceae, black and sturdy bamboo, growing in large, dense and upright clumps which are often used as material for making musical instruments, furniture, household utensils and handicrafts.

G. atroviolacea has green-black bamboo shoots with orange tips, covered with brown to black hairs. The reed grows straight and upright, 15 meters high, the segments 40-50 cm long and the walls 8 mm thick.

Dlium Black bamboo (Gigantochloa atroviolacea)

The reeds are dark green when young, turning greenish purple to dark brown with patches of pale or whitish rings on the joints with few aerial roots. Many branches, usually appearing at a height of 2-3 meters above the ground and one larger than the other.

The reed fronds fall off easily, except that the lowest one often persists, 16-20 cm long, has burly hair and is dark brown on the outside. The leaves of the reed are egg-shaped or oblong with a triangle with a narrow base, 4-9 cm long and curl back.

The frond ears are round with a slightly curved tip, 4 mm wide, 3-5 mm high and 7 mm long curved hair. The ligula is serrated irregular, 2 mm high and locos.

Leaves on twigs are lanceolate, 20-28 cm long, 2-5 cm wide and locos. Leaf midrib covered with whitish hairs when young. Frond ears up to 1 mm and lokos. The ligula is serrated, 2 mm high and locos.

Inflorescences in the form of panicles on leafy twigs with clusters of up to 18 spikelets on each segment. The spikelet is oval lanceolate, 8-11 cm long, 3 mm wide, 4 perfect florets and one flawless tip floret.

Black bamboo lives in humid tropical regions with rainfall of 1500-3700 mm per year, humidity of more than 70% and temperatures of 20-32C. Generally grows on latosol soils, red laterite and reddish brown, but prefers drier chalky soils.

The density of wet reeds is 0.37-0.48 and dry is 0.65. Dry reed moisture content is 16.8%. Black bamboo is used as a material for making musical instruments, household items, furniture, halls, handicrafts and various types of weaving. Bamboo shoots are often cooked as a vegetable.

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Bambusoideae
Tribe: Bambuseae
Subtribe: Bambusinae
Genus: Gigantochloa
Species: Gigantochloa atroviolacea



Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri)

Porang or iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri) is a plant species in Araceae, the leaves are pseudo stems with a height of 40-180 cm and a diameter of 1-5 cm, tubular, green with irregular white patches, each branching point grows bulbil colored brown and yellow tubers.

A. muelleri has pseudo stems and leaves that are bright green to dark green and have greenish white patches. The surface of the stalk is smooth, while the leaves are smooth wavy. Ellipse-shaped leaves with pointed tips.

When flushing has 3, 4-5, 5-6 and finally 6 minor leaf strands with 3 small leaf stems. Young leaves have edges that are light purple, green and will end yellow with a width of 0.3-0.5 mm. Canopy has a width of 50-150 cm.

Stems grow on tubers with a diameter of 25-50 mm and height 75-175 cm. The color of the tuber is brownish or beige on the outer surface and brownish on the inside, rather oval and stringy roots, weight 450-3350 grams, fine tissue, 4-5 months dormant period and 35-55% glucomannan content.

God is tools

OPINION - God and spirit are controversial discussions in science and even mythology will have no place among naturalists and for Darwinians. Apparently this has been final that mythology is a delusional, mystical and superstitious concept that cannot be empirically proven in the world of science.

Most scientists and science activists have agreed that god is nonsense, delusional and cannot be accommodated in the theory of evolution. This opinion can be understood methodologically and I agree with the sentences. But so many behaviors are very real and occur in the field.

I am a fieldman who goes to the wild every day, along rice fields and forests to watch insects to plants, talk to people especially in villages, visit Hindu-Buddhist temples built in the 8th century, witnessing busyness in mosques, temples and churches.

I feel something is missing in the view of naturalists and Darwinians. There are short moments that are missed in analyzes in the timeline of human evolution. These lit…

Javanese grasshopper (Valanga nigricornis)

Wooden grasshoppers or wooden walang or Javanese grasshopper (Valanga nigricornis) are grasshopper species in Acrididae and have around 18 subspecies, most of which are endemic to various island groups in Indonesia. This insect has a very broad sexual dimorphism where males have a length of 45-55 millimeters and females 15-75 mm.

V. nigricornis is yellowish brown or yellowish or green with bluish black marks. The back wing is rose red when flying. The nymphs are pale green and dark. They live in forests, bushes and really like the leaves of the giant sensitive plant (Mimosa diplotricha) and giant sensitive tree (Mimosa pigra).

Javanese grasshopper has one generation every year where four eggs are placed on moist soil in forest clearing. The eggs are not active throughout the dry season and it takes six to eight months to hatch.

The eggs hatch into nymphs and pass seven instar stages before becoming winged adults. Wood grasshoppers are solitary insects and do not form flocks, but outbre…