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Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera)

Kelapa or coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a species of plant in Arecaceae, a single member in Cocos, a tree with a height of up to 30 meters, large leaves, large fruit with inner flesh as a food source, used in almost all parts and is considered a versatile plant, especially for coastal communities.

C. nucifera has a single stem or is sometimes branched. Fiber roots, thick and woody, clustered to form weevils, adaptive to coastal sandy land. The trunk is segmented but when it is old it is not very visible, it is typical of the monocot type with spreading and woody vessels.

Dlium Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera)


A single leaf has a large and strong stem, has pinnate, green or yellow or brown in color, deeply incised and looks like a compound leaf, grows alternately upward, piled up and leaves a mark on the stem.

The flowers are compounded in a series protected by bractea. Male and female flowers, green or yellow or brown, female flowers at the base of the panicle and male flowers far from the base.

Large fruit, 10-20 cm in diameter or even more, yellow or green or brown in color. The fruit is composed of mesocarp in the form of berlignin fibers to protect the hard and water-resistant endocarp. The endocarp protects the seeds which are only protected by a membrane attached to the inner side.

Endospermium is a liquid that contains many enzymes and the solid phase is a sediment that settles on the endocarp wall over time. The embryo is small and only enlarges when the fruit is ready to germinate.



Coconut palms grow on the beach with an elevation of 0-450 meters, can grow up to 1000 meters, but as the elevation increases, the growth will slow down. Rainfall 1300-2300 mm / year, sunshine more than 120 hours / month, temperature 20-27C and humidity 70-80%.

Soils are diverse including alluvial, volcanic, laterite, sandy, clay and rocky soils. It grows well at a pH of 5-8, the soil water content must be the same as the evapotranspiration rate, the soil solum depth is at least 80-100 cm and flat land with a slope of 0-3%.

Kelapa is a multipurpose tree for tropical societies. All parts are used by humans. Wood from logs for wood of medium quality and can be used as planks for houses. Dry leaves for roofs of houses, young leaves for plaiting materials. Minor petiole collected together for the broom.

Bunches of young flowers for decoration in wedding ceremonies with certain symbols. Female flowers or young fruit are eaten. The sweet liquid that comes out of the flower stalks is drunk as a refreshing drink, processed into coconut sugar and fermented into tuak.

Mesocarp in the form of coarse fibers is traded as fuel, seat filler, rope matting, mats and planting medium for orchids. Endocarp or shell for fuel, substitute for scoop, beverage and food containers, raw materials for various handicrafts.

Endosperm, which is a liquid and a sediment that sticks to the inner wall of the shell, is a popular source of refreshment. White and soft young flesh is usually served as a mixture of cold drinks. Liquids containing various enzymes are served for fresh drinks and have detoxifying properties.

The old white and hardened flesh is squeezed for coconut milk, dried as copra for making oil and its derivatives, flavor enhancing ingredients in meat dishes and hair loss remedy. Liquid for refreshment and nata de coco.

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Subfamily: Arecoideae
Tribe: Cocoseae
Genus: Cocos
Species: Cocos nucifera

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