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Kenikir (Cosmos sulphureus)

Kenikir (Cosmos sulphureus) is a shrub plant that has a taproot and is up to 250 cm high, has stems that are sturdy, strong, erect, widely branched, quadrangular with longitudinal and hairy grooves. Leaves give aromatics when kneaded and colorful flowers depend on the culture.

C. sulphureus has compound leaves, pointed edges, grows crossed to face, flat edges, 15-25 cm long and green. Kenikir is a yearly plant with simple leaves arranged alternately along the stem of the plant with ovate shape and pinnatisect.

Dlium Kenikir (Cosmos caudatus)


Young leaves do not separate significantly from the main leaf bone. The position of the leaf is faced with a long shaped stem like a gutter. The top leaves in a row stick to the stems shorter, smaller and less shared.

The flowers have many petals and in the subtropical regions flower in June to October, while in the tropics throughout the year. This plant is weather-resistant and grows a lot in rice fields, the edge of the forest, the edge of the road and the yard that is sunny.

Kenikir has a compound flower that grows on the end of the stem and blooms for several days. Flower crowns consist of 8 leaves for pink, dark red, dark yellow, light yellow and bronze depending on variety.

The flowers have many petals and in the subtropical region come from June to October, while in the tropics throughout the year. Kenikir has a compound flower that grows at the end of the stem. The flower crown consists of eight leaves for colored pink, yellow and bronze.



Kenikir flowers have many discs, have two genitals and have five taju. The stamens are tubular and blackish brown. Hairy pistil with two pistil branches and yellowish green. This plant fruit is in the form of an achene.

Kenikir leaves contain several compounds including chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, quercetin 3-O-glycosides, pentose quercetin, quercetin deoxyl-hexose, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid. Dried leaves contain quercetin compounds for levels of 413.57mg/100g and kaemferol for levels of 7.28mg/100g.

Total phenolic content in leaf water extract showed higher activity than ethanol extract. The total phenolic water extract of kenikir leaves was 844.8mgGAE/100g (wet weight), while the total flavonoids were 183.69 to 483.91mgQE/g dry extract.

51% quercetin is the main flavonoid in leaves. The main phenolic acids were 4.5% chlorogenic acid, 3.6% caffeic acid, and 3.1% ferulic acid. The kenikir leaves also contain essential oils which are mostly in the form of γ-cadinene as much as 33% and karyophilene as much as 10%.

In Indonesia, kenikir leaves are usually eaten as fresh vegetables. Traditional Javanese medicine uses kenikir leaves for anti-bone loss, accelerates blood circulation, and lowers blood pressure. Some studies correlate kenikir leaf extract as an antihypertensive and diuretic, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antiosteoporosis and antidiabetic.
Kingdom Plantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Coreopsideae
Genus: Cosmos
Species: Cosmos sulphureus

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