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Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana)

Bidara or Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana) is a species of plant in the Rhamnaceae, a small tree, usually crooked, up to 15 meters high, trunk diameter up to 40 cm, branches spreading and often hanging down with branches growing irregularly and often thorny.

Z. mauritiana has supporting leaves in the form of spines, 5-7 mm long, straight or in the form of dimorphic pairs, the second of which is shorter and curved, sometimes without spines. Single leaves sit alternately.

Dlium Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana)

The leaves are egg-shaped or oblong, 2-9 cm long, 1.5-5 cm wide, the upper side is glabrous and shiny, the lower side has whitish hair, the three main veins are clearly visible running parallel. Leaf stalks are 8-15 mm long.

The inflorescences are umbrella-shaped, forked, growing in the leaf axils, 1-2 cm long and have 7-20 flowers. The flowers are 2-3 mm in diameter, yellowish, slightly fragrant and peduncles 3-8 mm long. The petals have 5 spurs and are triangular in shape. The flowers have 5 petals, somewhat spatula-like, concave and curved.

Fruits are round to ovoid, up to 6 cm but mostly much smaller, skin shiny and thin but strong, yellowish or reddish to black when ripe. White flesh with lots of juice and a sour to sweet taste. The seeds are protected in a shell and have irregular grooves, are brown and oval-shaped.

Fruit is bought and sold as fresh fruit to be eaten directly or made into fresh drinks. The fruit is also dried or candied. Young fruits are eaten with salt. Fruit is a source of carotene, vitamins A and C.

The young leaves are used as vegetables and the old leaves are used as animal feed. A decoction of the leaves is drunk as a herbal medicine. The leaves foam like soap when kneaded in water and are used to bathe people with fever. The leaves are also used to bathe corpses.

Leaves are also used to maintain heart health, speed up wound healing, lower cholesterol, improve the digestive system, reduce the risk of diabetes, treat hemorrhoids, treat acne, antibacterial, lose weight, and care for hair. The bark is used to treat digestive disorders, as a medicine for stomach, stomach, intestinal and as a tonic. Root bark to treat urinary pain and bleeding.

Reddish colored wood, smooth texture, hard and durable. Wood is used for household utensils, ax handles, construction, furniture, cupboards, packing crates, veneer and plywood. Wood has a specific gravity of 0.54-1.08. The heartwood has a yellow-brown or pale red or brown to dark brown color. This wood dries well, but sometimes breaks a little. Good quality firewood with calories of 4,900 kcal/kg. Bark and bidara fruit are also used as dyes. These materials produce tannins and a reddish-brown or grayish coloring.

This species grows in areas with clear dry seasons, hot and rich in sun, but also experiences adequate rainy seasons to grow twigs, leaves and flowers, and maintain soil moisture during fruit production. Grows with rainfall of 300-500 mm/year and elevations of up to 1000 meters.

This tree is easy to adapt and often grows wild on land that is poorly maintained and on the side of the road. Grows in various types of soil including laterite, well-drained black soil, sandy soil, clay, alluvial soil along river flows.

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rhamnaceae
Tribe: Paliureae
Genus: Ziziphus
Species: Ziziphus mauritiana
Variety: Ziziphus mauritiana var. pubescens



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