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Apple mangrove (Sonneratia caseolaris)

Pidada or apple mangrove (Sonneratia caseolaris) is a species of plant in the Lythraceae, evergreen tree, wide crown, up to 20 meters high, cream to brown bark with fine horizontal cracks, thick roots and appears in the form of rather thick pointed cones.

S. caseolaris has leaves sitting opposite each other, thick, oval or inverted oval, 5-10 long, 3-9 cm wide, wide rounded tips, often curved and the stems are often red.

Dlium Apple mangrove (Sonneratia caseolaris)

The flowers are red, ephemeral, fully developed after 20.00 at night (nocturnal) and contain a lot of nectar. The fruit has a diameter of 6-8 cm, green, smooth surface, stemmed tip, cup-shaped petals that cover the base of the fruit and sour taste. The seeds are numerous and flat.

This species grows in brackish areas in mangrove forests and muddy soil along small rivers with slow flowing water and is influenced by tides and lots of sunlight, temperature 20-30C, rainfall 1500-2500 mm/year and pH 6.7-7 ,3.

This plant is a pioneer in mangrove forests, often growing in the sea but in parts that are protected from direct waves. The fruit floats in water and is spread by sea currents and tides.

This wood is durable in sea water and is often used for boat decks. Young leaves are eaten raw or boiled. The fruit is astringent and sour, eaten when it starts to soften and used as a seasoning for fish dishes.

Plants contain alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics (gallic acid, 2 luteolin flavonoids, luteolin 7-O-ß-glycoside), pectin, tannins, saponins, nyasol, maslinic acid. Often used as a hemostatic, a medicine for sprains, swelling, wounds and bruises, worms, coughs, smallpox, bloody urine and a stimulant.

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Myrtales
Family: Lythraceae
Genus: Sonneratia
Species: Sonneratia caseolaris



Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia)

Sonokeling or Java palisandre or Indian rosewood ( Dalbergia latifolia ) is a species of plant in the Fabaceae, a large tree producing hardwood, medium weight and high quality, rounded leaves, thin and broad pods, highly adaptive, grows in dry and rocky landscapes with lots of sunlight. D. latifolia has medium to large size, cylindrical stems, up to 40 m high with a ring of up to 2 m, the bark is brownish gray and slightly cracked longitudinally. The crown is dense, dome-shaped and sheds leaves. The leaves are compound and pinnate oddly with 5-7 strands that have different sizes and appear alternately on the shaft. The leaves are round or elongated in width or heart, the upper surface is green and the surface is pale green. The flowers are small, 0.5-1 cm long and clustered in panicles. The pods are green to brown when ripe and are elongated lanceolate, pointed at the base and tip. The pods have 1-4 seeds which are soft and brownish. Indian rosewood grows at elevations below 600 m,

Elephant bell gourd (Trichosanthes tricuspidata)

Elephant bell gourd ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata ) is a plant species in the Cucurbitaceae, stems grow elongated to propagate or climb, many branches, cylindrical in shape and green in color. T. cochinchinensis has stem tips or branches that twist to attach themselves to a support or other plant. It grows to climb to cover a support, usually on another plant, up to several meters and creeps along the ground to reach another support. Arrow-shaped leaves, split base, sharp apex and two wings at an acute angle, have many veins ending at a sharp edge, green and have a long petiole. Single flower is white. The fruit is round to oval, ends with a tail, young green and turns red with maturity, thin skin, thick flesh and reddish yellow, has a short stalk and hangs. The seeds are in the middle of the fruit. Seeds are white, oval and flat. Black coated seeds. Elephant bell gourd grows wild in primary and secondary forests, agricultural land, roadsides, watersheds, especially on slopes, damp a

Redflower ragleaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides)

Sintrong or ebolo or thickhead or redflower ragleaf ( Crassocephalum crepidioides ) are plant species in Asteraceae, terma height 25-100 cm, white fibrous roots, generally grow wild on the roadside, yard gardens or abandoned lands at altitude 200- 2500 m. C. crepidioides has erect or horizontal stems along the soil surface, vascular, soft, non-woody, shallow grooves, green, rough surface and short white hair, aromatic fragrance when squeezed. Petiole is spread on stems, tubular and eared. Single leaf, spread out, green, 8-20 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, longitudinal or round inverted eggshell with a narrow base along the stalk. Pointed tip, flat-edged or curved to pinnate, jagged rough and pointed. The top leaves are smaller and often sit. Compound flowers grow throughout the year in humps that are arranged in terminal flat panicles and androgynous. Green cuffs with orange-brown to brick-red tips, cylindrical for 13-16 mm long and 5-6 mm wide. The crown is yellow with a brownish red