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Mangrove palm (Nypa fruticans)

Nipah or mangrove palm (Nypa fruticans) is a species of plant in the Arecaceae, the stems spread along the ground, forming rhizomes that are submerged in mud and only the rosette of leaves appears above the ground, the fibrous roots grow up to 13 meters and the clumps can be washed away by water until to the sea.

N. fruticans has rhizomes that produce compound and pinnate leaves, upright up to 9 meters above the ground. The stalk is 1-1.5 meters long with a hard and shiny surface, green when young and brown to black as it ages. The inside is soft like cork.

Dlium Mangrove palm (Nypa fruticans)

The minor leaves are elongated ribbon-shaped and have a pointed tip and have veins. Up to 100 cm long and leaves 4-7 cm wide. Young leaves are yellow and old leaves are green. Each enthal has 25-100 strands.

Compound flower bouquets appear in the leaf axils. Each strand has 4-5 male flowers with a length of 5 cm. The male flower is protected by a sheath, but the part filled with pollen remains visible.

The female flowers are collected at the tip to form a ball and the male flowers are arranged in panicles, red or orange or yellow on the branches below. The female flowers are bullet-shaped and bent towards the side. Flower stalk length 100-170 cm. The flower bunches can be tapped for sap.

Stone fruit with fibrous mesocarp, inverted oval and flattened, 2-3 ribs, reddish brown, 16 cm long and 13 cm wide, collected in tight clusters resembling a ball with a diameter of 121 cm. The exocarp is smooth, the mesocarp is fibrous and the endocarp is hard like a shell.

The seeds are protected by a shell with a length of between 8-13 cm and are conical in shape. Each bunch has 30-50 grains, packed together to form a round fruit cluster. Ripe fruit falls into the water and floats with the tidal currents until it is caught in a place to grow.

This species grows at temperatures of 20-35C in swamp areas, rainfall of more than 1500 mm/year, coastal climate and elevation of 0-10 meters in fine, watery mud, pH 6-6.5, salinity 50-100 mmosh/ cm3 and optimum salt concentration 1-9/mil. Usually grows in pure stands, but in some areas it grows mixed with other mangrove trees.

Each tree produces 0.4-1.2 liters of sap every day. Nira contains 13-17% sucrose to be processed into bioethanol and sugar. This tree is also used for house roofs and craft materials. Young leaves for cigarette paper. Palm leaf stalks and midribs for firewood. Leaf midribs also contain cellulose for pulp. Sticks are used for brooms, woven materials and ropes. The young fruit and seeds are eaten, the old fruit is ground to make flour.

Plants contain essential amino acids (histidine, arginine, theronine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenyl alanine and lysine), alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, chlorogenic acid and kaempferol. This tree is used to treat toothache and headaches, improve the digestive tract, reduce fever, antidote, sedative, cough, sore throat and anticancer.

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Subfamily: Nypoideae
Genus: Nypa
Species: Nypa fruticans



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