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Know the types of coffee

Each coffee has a distinctive flavor and you will not find the same taste elsewhere. This beverage arena is a geographic character. Each coffee has a variety of variables that make it special including species and varieties, soil types, location, altitude, processing methods and others.

The coffee world only classifies coffee based on popular general characterizations which are referred to as single origin or refers to the cultivation area from which the coffee was grown. This term intends to make it easier for people to recognize the character of coffee.

Dlium Know the types of coffee

Taxonomy

Members in a species if they mate with each other will produce fertile offspring without reproductive barriers. In addition, the variety also shows a distinctive appearance different from other varieties, but will cross freely with other varieties.

The three most popular coffees consumed are arabica (Coffea arabica), robusta (Coffea canephora var. Robusta), liberika (Coffea liberica var. Dewerei) and others for a total of more than 120 species.

C. arabica is found first in the Ethiopian highlands and is the most popular in the universe. At least 70% of the world's coffee trade is dominated by this species and prices are more expensive where plant care and cultivation is not easy.

The distinctive feature of arabica is the color of steeping which is not concentrated and the acidity level is higher than the caffeine contained. This species is most sought after by farmers because it can give birth to several varieties with unique and different smells. Arabica has a more fragrant and rich aroma.



At least two Arabica coffee varieties are well-known and are the parent of varieties that are spread throughout the world. C. arabica var Typica is the oldest arabica variety taken from Ethiopia and has become the parent of most existing arabica varieties. Others are C. arabica var Bourbon originating from Yemen.

Robusta coffee is one of the subspecies of Coffea canephora and other subspecies is C. canephora var. Nganda. However, most of the cultivated robusta is C. canephora var. Robusta so that this name is used by people in general for all.

Robusta comes from a robust word which means strong. Although this plant is more resistant to pests and easier to maintain, the quality of the fruit is lower than arabica and the price is cheaper.

Robusta has a strong, rugged, earthy and nutty aroma. The taste is more bitter than other types of coffee. This variety is perfect for drinks with a mixture of other ingredients including milk and chocolate because the taste of real coffee will not lose.

Arabica and Robusta have a strong place in the world market, but some people carry out crossbreeding that gives birth to hybrids to produce plants that are arabica scented and have resistant pests such as robusta. Timor coffee is one of the arabica and robusta hybrids cultivated on Timor Island.

Catimor coffee is the result of cross-breeding by caturra and timor where the hybrid variety is expected to inherit pest resistance by timor and harvest speed by caturra. Catimor has a bitter and nutty taste, but low acidity.

Liberica coffee (Coffea liberica var. Dewerei) has a larger fruit size than arabica and robusta, but the drying process produces only 10% of the wet weight. Depreciation was not liked by farmers. Liberika's production level is very low or only around 1-2% of world coffee production.

Single origin

Coffee is also differentiated according to the area of origin where they grow where each place will produce different fruit flavors. For example Toraja, Java preanger, Kintamani, Gayo, Sidikalang, Mandailing, Bajawa Flores, Wamena and others.

Brew

Coffee is also differentiated according to the way of making it into a drink. Espresso based coffee includes Ristretto, Lungo, Doppio, Americano, Long black, Latte, Cappuccino, Macchiato, Mochaccino, Affogato, Con panna and Black eye.

Some types of coffee are manually made or call brew coffee manuals including Kopi tubruk, Pour over, Vietnamese drip, Plunger or press, Vacuum, Moka pot and Cold brew.

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