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Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora)

Robusta coffee or Coffea robusta (Coffea canephora) is a descendant of several species of coffee plants in Rubiaceae, grows well at an altitude of 400-700 m, temperatures 24-30C with a dry period of 3-4 months in a row and 3-4 times rain with 2000-3000 mm per year.

C. canephora has two varieties, Coffea canephora var. robusta and Coffea canephora var. nganda. Shallow root system and grows into trees or shrubs up to 10 meters high. The flowering period is irregular and requires around 10-11 months for the fruit to ripen and produce the desired coffee beans.

Dlium Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora)

Robusta coffee produces more crops and contains caffeine as much as 2.7%. This plant is more resistant to pests and leaf rust, so it requires fewer herbicides and pesticides on the plantation.

Very suitable for planting in wet tropical regions, loose soil and rich in organic matter, pH from 5.5 to 6.5 and in the shade of other trees. Reproductive branches grow upright. The fruit comes in the primary branch which grows flat and flexible to form a canopy like an umbrella.

The leaves are rounded with an pointed or blunt tip. Leaves on the stems will grow perpendicular to the intermittent arrangement, while on horizontal branches in pairs will grow in the same plane.

Robusta coffee plants start flowering at 2 years. Generally 3-4 flowers grow on the primary armpit and bloom at the beginning of the dry season to cross pollinate. The time period from flowering to fruit ready for harvest ranges from 10-11 months.



The young fruit is green, turns red when ripe and will continue to stick firmly to the stalk. Robusta productivity averages around 900-2,000 kg/ha/year and yields of around 22% or higher than Coffea arabica.

This coffee is derived from several species, especially Canephora, perhaps for that reason, the source of seed is not called a variety but a clone. Some robusta clones recommended by the Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) are Klon BP308, Klon BP42, Klon SA436 and Klon BP234.

Robusta has a lower price than arabica. The aroma of robusta is not as strong as arabica, but it is very thick and the caffeine content is more than twice as much. About 99% of the world coffee trade is Robusta and Arabica with a proportion of 25-30% and 70-75% market share.

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Coffea
Species: C. canephora

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