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Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

Nangka or jack tree or jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) are plant species in Moraceae, monoecious, 10-30 m tall trees, 1 m diamater, cylindrical stems, dense and wide crowns, all parts emit white sap and can interbreed with cempedak (A. integer) in the wild.

A. heterophyllus has a single leaf, scattered, stalk 1-4 cm, thick, stiff, flat edges, ovoid and elongated, 3.5-12x5-25 cm with a narrow base and short pointed tip. Leaves are ovate, sharp, 8 cm long, fall off easily and leave ring marks.

Dlium Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

Flowers grow on the armpits of leaves on old stems or branches. The male flowers in the hump are spindle-shaped, 1-3x3-8 cm, deep green, yellow and fragrant pollen. Mature flowers will rot, blacken and fall. Female flowers in single or paired heads, cylindrical or oval and dark green.

The fruit is in a spindle shape, uneven, 100 cm long, the outer side forms short and soft spines. The inside is the development of a flower, yellow when ripe, fragrant and sweet. The seeds are oval shaped, 2-4 cm long, covered by thin brown skin, hard whitish endocarp and soft exocarp.

Jack tree will bear fruit throughout the year if it grows well in a tropical climate, rainfall is more than 1500 mm/year but is intolerant of cold, extreme drought and inundation. Trees come from seeds and start flowering at 2-8 years, while clones start flowering after 2-4 years.

Nangka has many varieties that create a variety of tree shapes, flavors and fruits. Commonly known for the two big groups are "Nangka Bubur" with thin, fibrous, soft, sour-sweet fruit and a sharp aroma, while "Nangka Salak" has thick, hard and bitter-sweet fruit.



The fruit is mainly harvested for fresh, juices, soups, jams and chips. Jack tree is also used as an ingredient of ice cream and drinks, concentrates and flour. Seeds are boiled and eaten as a source of carbohydrates, fried as chips and ground for flour.

Young fruit is very popular as a vegetable ingredient for curry, sweet and sour dishes, "Gudeg" and others. Leaves as feed for goats, sheep and cattle. Bark for straps and clothing. The sap to patch the boat.

Yellow wood, good quality and easy to process, strong, resistant to termites and mildew attacks, has an attractive pattern and is easy to gloss. Wood is often used as household appliances, furniture, building construction, musical instruments and yellow coloring materials.

Nangka has a distinctive sweet and fruity aroma. The main volatile compounds detected were ethyl isovalerate, propyl isovalerate, butyl isovalerate, isobutyl isovalerate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, 1-butanol, and 2-methylbutan-1-ol.

A fully ripe and unopened jackfruit is known to "emit a strong aroma", with the inside of the fruit described as smelling of pineapple and banana. After roasting, the seeds may be used as a commercial alternative to chocolate aroma.

The flesh of the jackfruit is starchy and fibrous and is a source of dietary fiber. The pulp is composed of 74% water, 23% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 1% fat. In a 100-g portion, raw jackfruit provides 400 kJ (95 kcal) and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin B6 (25% DV). It contains moderate levels (10-19% DV) of vitamin C and potassium.

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Genus: Artocarpus
Species: A. heterophyllus

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