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Devil's backbone (Euphorbia tithymaloides)

Pokok lipan or devil's-backbone or redbird flower or christmas candle or Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Euphorbia tithymaloides) are plant species in Euphorbiaceae, upright, evergreen, gummy shrubs, growing in tropical and subtropical regions.

E. tithymaloides likes sandy soils especially with high concentrations of boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc. This bush grows to 2.4 m high and 61 cm wide. Simple angiosperm leaves, arranged opposite to the stem where each leaf is sessile with a length of 3.6-7.6 cm.

Dlium Devil's backbone (Euphorbia tithymaloides)

The stem has the tip of a handle that supports a group of flowers that are not scented. Bifid crown and ovoid. The involucral bracts are bright red, irregular in shape and length from 1.1 to 1.3 mm.

Hairy male and female pedicels. Seed pods are 7.6 mm long, 8.9 mm wide and ovate with clipped ends. Devil's-backbone generally blooms in mid-spring in the subtropical region and in the dry season in the tropics. Pollination is carried out by ants and birds.

Redbird flower has several subspecies including Euphorbia tithymaloides tithymaloides, Euphorbia tithymaloides angustifolia, Euphorbia tithymaloides bahamensis, Euphorbia tithymaloides jamaicensis, Euphorbia tithymaloides padifolia, Euphorbia tithymaloides parasitica, Euphorbia tithymaloides retusa dan Euphorbia tithymaloides smallii.

The roots, stems and leaves of plants are known to be poisonous. Parts of this plant contain euphorbols and other diterpene esters which are carcinogens. The leaves and stems also contain beta-sitosterol, cycloartenone, octacosanol and oxime which have medical and toxic properties.



Roots can irritate mucous membranes, skin irritation, inflammation, blisters, keratoconjunctivitis and decreased visual activity. If swallowed will cause severe vomiting and diarrhea, irritation of the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines.

Its roots are known as strong emetics. This plant is used to fight intestinal worms and is useful for dealing with diabetes mellitus. Leaves to treat asthma, coughing, sore throat, mouth sores and venereal disease. The root is used as an abortion of patients.

Latex to treat calluses, earaches, insect stings, ringworm, skin cancer, toothache, umbilical hernia and warts. A few drops of latex are added to the milk as an emetic.

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Genus: Euphorbia
Species: E. tithymaloides
Subspecies: Euphorbia tithymaloides tithymaloides, Euphorbia tithymaloides angustifolia, Euphorbia tithymaloides bahamensis, Euphorbia tithymaloides jamaicensis, Euphorbia tithymaloides padifolia, Euphorbia tithymaloides parasitica, Euphorbia tithymaloides retusa and Euphorbia tithymaloides smallii

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