Skip to main content

Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri)

Porang or iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri) is a plant species in Araceae, the petiole is a pseudo stem with a height of 40-180 cm, 1-5 cm in diameter, round, green or purple with irregular white spots, each branching point grows brown bulbil and yellow bulb.

A. muelleri has all leaves or stems or stems that are light green to dark green or gray and has greenish-white patches, smooth or smooth surface. The leaves are elliptical in shape with pointed leaf tips, smooth and wavy surface.

Dlium Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri)

When flushing has 3, 4-5, 5-6 and finally 6 minor leaves branching with 3 minor petioles. Young leaves have light purple or green edges and will end in yellow and 0.3-0.5 mm wide. The whole canopy is 50-150 cm wide.

The stems grow above the tubers with a diameter of 25-50 mm and a height of 75-175 cm. Tubers have a brownish yellow or gray color on the outer surface and brownish yellow on the inside, are slightly oval in shape, fibrous roots, weigh 450-3350 grams, smooth tissue, 4-5 months of dormancy and a glucomannan content of 35-55%.

Bulbil grows on the branching of the leaves, the outside is brown and the inside is yellow, the surface is rough, has a symmetrical or oval shape, weighs 1-23 grams, diameter 1-5 cm, fine tissue structure, 4-5 months of dormancy and levels glucomannan 25-30%.

Compound flowers, fleshy, inflorescent and unisexual with male flowers in the middle of the ear, oval-shaped, tapering to the base, 40-80 mm in diameter, 10-22 cm high, green or greenish yellow and ending in orange-red.

The fruit is formed apomictically, arranged on a stalk, greenish pink when young and red when old. An average of 300 grains per ear, ripen in 8-9 months from flowering and the seeds remain dormant for 1-2 months.

Porang has vegetative organs consisting of leaves, stems, tubers and roots. The pseudo-stem grows for 6 months, then falls off and the tubers that have formed enter dormancy. The tubers will grow into new plants in the following rainy season. When the tuber is big it will grow flowers.

Iles-iles produces a bulbil in the first period, 4-7 bulbil in the second period and 10-20 bulbil in the third period. Bulbil size varies depending on the location of the branching and plant age.

The life cycle starts from seeding to producing fruit and ripens at 38-43 months. The plant will flower if the tuber weighs more than 500 grams and twice the vegetative growth period. Tubers grow maximally after completing the four vegetative period or before entering the sexual period.

Shoots use the nutrient reserves in the seed tubers for stem and leaf growth. Seed tubers will rot to be replaced by new tubers after 60 days and will enlarge using photosynthesis.

A. muelleri is a tropical plant, grows well in shady places such as under bamboo groves and dense forests, altitude 100-600 m, temperature 25-35C, rainfall 300-500 mm/month during vegetative growth periods, loose soil and pH 6-7.5. Many wild plants grow on the slopes of streams and hillsides.

Iles-iles tubers contain carbohydrates as glucomannan which is composed of mannose and glucose. The glucomannan polymer has cellulose and galactomannan characteristics which form crystals and fine fibers. Glucomannan will expand 138-200% rapidly in water.

Tubers are widely used in the food, medicine and cosmetic industries including gelatin, noodles, tofu, cosmetics, bread and glue. Flour is used as a food ingredient for diabetes patients, lowers cholesterol and blood sugar levels, improves digestive function, boosts the immune system and reduces weight.

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Alismatales
Family: Araceae
Subfamily: Aroideae
Tribe: Thomsonieae
Genus: Amorphophallus
Species: Amorphophallus muelleri



Javan broadhead planarian (Bipalium javanum)

Cacing palu or Javan broadhead planarian ( Bipalium javanum ) is a species of animal in Geoplanidae, hermaphrodite, living on the ground, predators, often called only hammerhead or broadhead or shovel worms because of wide heads and simple copulatory organs. B. javanum has a slim stature, up to 20 cm long, up to 0.5 cm wide, head wide up to 1 cm or less, small neck, widening in the middle and the back end is rounded, all black and shiny. Javan broadhead planarians walk above ground level by raising their heads and actively looking left, right and looking up using strong neck muscles. Move swiftly, track meander, climb to get through all obstacles or make a new path if the obstacle is too high. Cacing palu track and prey on earthworms and mollusks. They use muscles and sticky secretions to attach themselves to prey to lock in. The head and ends of the body are wrapped around and continue to close the body to stop prey reactions. They produce tetrodotoxins which are very strong

Javanese grasshopper (Valanga nigricornis)

Wooden grasshopper or Javanese grasshopper ( Valanga nigricornis ) is an animal species of Acrididae, grasshoppers that have at least 18 subspecies, insects with very wide diversity in color and size, sexual dimorphism in which females are larger in size and paler in color. V. nigricornis in males has a length of 45-55 millimeters and females 15-75 mm. The head is square and green or yellow or brown or black in color. A pair of antennas has a black color. The eyes are large and gray or white or brownish. The hind legs are very large and have a green or yellow or brown or black color, plain or brindle. The limbs have two rows of large and long spines with black tips facing backward. The wings have a length exceeding the belly, a rough surface and are brown or green or yellow or black in color with pulse lines forming spaces filled with black color. The hind wings are rose red which will be visible when flying. Nymphs are pale green or yellow or brown or blackish in color. Javanese gr