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Bitter melon (Momordica charantia)

Pare or bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a plant species in Cucurbitaceae, grows climbing or spreads with spiral-shaped tendrils, many branches, long fruit and jagged surface, grows well in tropical regions and is usually cultivated for vegetables and medicinal ingredients.

M. charantia has green stems with white hairs. Single leaf stemmed and arranged alternately, length 3.5-8.5 cm, width 4 cm, divided into 5-7 fins with many bones, heart-shaped base, green, wrinkled surface and jagged margins.

Dlium Bitter melon (Momordica charantia)


A single flower has a stalk, male and female flowers in the tree, the crown has five fins and is yellow. The fruit is long oval shaped, has 8-10 linear ribs, irregular nodules, 6-30 cm long depending on subspecies and varieties, bitter taste, young green, ripe to orange and broken with three parts.

Bitter melon has several subpsecies including Momordica charantia macroloba, Momordica charantia charantia and Momordica charantia abbreviata. Some varieties include Momordica charantia muricata and Momordica charantia zeylanica.

Grows wild on abandoned soil, moor or is cultivated and planted in the yard by being spread on the fence to harvest fruit. This plant does not need too much sunlight and can flourish in shady places. Seed is taken from ripe fruit.

Fruits contain albuminoids, carbohydrates and pigments. The leaves contain momordisina, momordina, carantina, resin and oil. The root contains momordial acid and oleanolic acid. Seeds contain saponins, alkaloids, triterprenoid, and momordial acid. Large content of beta-carotene to prevent cancer, heart attacks and viral infections.



Pare is widely used for treatment including digestive disorders, tonics, laxatives, vomiting stimulants, stimulating appetite, jaundice, improving digestion, malaria and hypoglycemic drugs through plant-based insulin which reduces blood sugar content for diabetics.

Leaves to cure diarrhea in infants, clean the blood of women who have just given birth, reduce fever, remove pinworms and cure coughs. Seed extract is used as an exterminator of Aedes aegypti larvae.

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Cucurbitales
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Genus: Momordica
Species: Momordica charantia
Subspecies: Momordica charantia macroloba, Momordica charantia charantia, Momordica charantia abbreviata
Varieties: Momordica charantia muricata, Momordica charantia zeylanica

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