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Karimunjawa National Park

Karimunjawa National Park is a conservation marine area covering 110,117 hectares (1,101 square kilometers) and covers 22 islands in the Java Sea in Jepara Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The national park is located at coordinates 5°40’39” - 5°55’00” LS dan 110°05’57” - 110°31’15” BT and was proclaimed in 1999.

Karimunjawa Islands are home to coral reefs, mangrove forests and coastal forests where nearly 400 species of marine fauna include 242 species of ornamental fish. Some rare fauna are White chest sea eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) and turtles. The characteristic plant of Karimunjawa National Park is dewadaru (Crystocalyx macrophyla) in lowland rainforests.

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Regions with five types of ecosystems are lowland tropical rainforest, mangrove forest, coastal forest, seagrass beds, and coral reefs as home to 7 of mammals, 116 of aves, 12 of reptiles, 17 of butterflies, 42 of insects, 412 of pisces, 205 of Anthozoa, 2 of Plathyhelmintes, 2 of Annelids, 47 of Gastropods, 8 of Bivalves, 8 of Cephalopods, 5 of Arthropods, 31 of Echinoderms, 35 of Porifera, and 45 of Macrobenthos.

This national park is a habitat for hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and lekang turtles (Lepidochelys olivaceae). The turtle conservation program has been carried out since 2003 and in December 2017 at least 652 nests with 75,295 eggs.

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The most commonly used transportation to Karimunjawa is ships from Semarang City and Jepara City. Fast boats take 2-3 hours, while ferries are at least 6 hours. The flight from Ahmad Yani Airport in Semarang to Dewa Daru Airport on Kemujan Island is CASA 212 type rental aircraft provided by Kura-Kura Resort.

Flora of lowland tropical rainforest

Justicia gendarussa, Alternathera sessilis, Anacardium occidentale, Bouea macrophylla, Buchanania arborescens, Goniothalamus sp, Polyathia glauca, Uvaria littoralis, Alstonia scholaris, Kopsia flavida, Colocasia esculenta, Oncosperma tililarium, Licuala spinosa, Polycias nodosa, Polycias sp, Vernonia arborea, Begonia isopteran, Garcinia celebica, Paranarium corymbosum, Fimbristylis dichotoma.



Scleria littosperma, Commelina nudiflora, Calophyllum soulatri, Dioscorea sp, Humata respens, Tetracera scandens, Antidesma ghasembilla, Antidesma montanum, Bridelia minutiflora, Endospermum diadenum, Glochidion arborescens, Glochidion rubrum, Endospermum malaccense, Mallotus philippinensis, Phylanthus boxifolius, Aporosa frutescens, Gelonium sp, Intsia bijuga, Erythrina microcarpa, Flagellaria indica.

Gleichenia linearis, Gnetum cuspidatum, Actinodapne apoensis, Cryptocarya tomentosa, Litsea elliptica, Litsea accedentoides, Leea aequata, Leea indica, Fragraea frafrans, Lygodium circinatum, Lygodium flexuosum, Pternandra caerulescens, Memeycylon floribundum, Knema laurina, Hibiscus macrophyllus, Ficus lacor, Ficus septica, Ficus variegatta, Ficus microcarpa, Artabotrys heterophyllus ysoxylum sp.

Sandoricum koetjape, Decaspermum fruticosum, Syzygium acuminitissima, Rhodamnia cinerea, Syzygium liniatum, Syzygium pycnathum, Syzygium syzygiodes, Ardisia fuliginosa, Ardisia humilis, Nephrolepis sp, Chionanthus ramiflorus, Gomphia serrata, Ophioglossum pendulum, Bulbophyllum macranthum, Bulbophylum medusa, Coelogyne trinervis, Spathoglottisplicata, Pityrogramma calomelanos.

Adiantum philippense, Ischaemum muticum, Drynaria quercifolia, Drynariasparsisora, Drynaria quersifolia, Acronychialaurifolia, Lasianthus oculuscati, Pavetta indica, Plectronia parviflora, Psychotri sarmento, Urophyllum hirsutum, Urophyllum arboreum, Planchonella obovata, Mischocarpus sundaicus, Brucea javanica, Turpinia sphaerocarpa, Tacca palmate, Microcos tomentosa, Callicarpa longifolia, Premna obtusifolia, Vitex pubescens, Lantana camara, Cissus javana.


Flora of primary mangrove forest

Acanthus ebracteatus, Acanthus ilicifolius, Acrostichum aureum, Acrosticum speciosum, Aegiceras curniculatum, Avicennia marina, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera cylindrica, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Bruguiera sexangula, Ceriops decandra, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha.

Heritiera litoralis, Lumnitzera littorea, Lumnitzera racemosa, Nypa fruticans, Pemphis acidula, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizhopora mucronata, Rhizhopora stylosa, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Sonneratia alba, Sonneratia caseolaris, Sonneratia ovata, Xylocarpus granatum, Xylocarpus mouccensis.


Flora of secondary mangrove forest

Barringtonia asiatica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Clerodendrum inerme, Deris sp, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Melastoma candidum, Morinda citrifolia, Pandanus tectorius, Passiflora foetida, Pongamia pinnata, Scaevola taccada, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Spinifex littoreus, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis, Terminalia catappa, Thespesia populnea, Wedelia biflora.

Flora of coastal forest

Baringtonia asiatica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Canarium litoare, Casuarina equisetifolia, Cleidion javanicum, Clerodendrum inerme, Cocos nucifera, Crinum asiaticum, Desmodium sp, Grewia paniculata, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Hoya diversifolia, Ipomoea pescaprae, Lantana camara, Litsea accedentoides, Melastoma affine, Melastoma candidum.

Morinda citrifolia, Pandanus, Pandanus tectorinus, Passiflora foetida, Pongamia pinnata, Premna serymbosa, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Scaefola frustescens, Scaefola taccada, Spinifex littoreus, Stachytarpheta jamaiqensis, Terminalia cattapa, Thespesia populnea, Typha angustifolia, Vitex trifoliata, Wedelia bitflora.


Seagrass

Cymodocea rotundata, Halodule pinifolia, Halodule univervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Enhalus acoroides, Halophila minor, Halophila ovalis, Thalassia hempricii, Thalassodendron ciliatum.

Macroalgae

Boergesenia forbesii, Caulerpa lentillifera, Caulerpa cupresiodes, Caulerpa serrulata, Cauerpa sertularoides, Caulerpa taxifola, Chaetomorpha crassa, Codium decorticatum, Dictyosphaeria cavernosa, Halimeda capiosa, Halimeda cylindracea, Halimeda discoidea, Halimeda micronesica, Halimeda opuntia.

Halimeda macroloba, Udetea argentea, Udetea flabellum, Tydemania expeditionis, Ulva sp, Valonia ventricosa, Sargassum cinireum, Sargassum crassifolium, Turbinaria conoides, Padina gymnospora, Sargassum sp, Turbinaria sp, Euchema denticilatum, Gracilaria arcuata, Hypnea asperi, Gelidium sp, Hynea sp.


Fungus of lowland tropical rainforests

Auricularia polytricha, Clavaria sp, Coprinus sp, Dermocybe sp, Cortinarius sp, Ganoderma lucidium, Ganoderma australe, Ramariopsis sp, Ascocoryne sp, Laccaria sp, Hygrocybe aff. firma, Marasmius sect. androsacei, Hygrocybe sp, Amauroderma pluteus sp, Stereopsis sp.

Podoschypa sp, Panus sp, Pycnoporus sangunensis, Trametes versicolor, Polyporus sp, Russula sp, Schizophyllum commune, Scleroderma sp, Thelephora sp, Tremella, Mycena sp, Tricholoma sp, Daldinia sp, Gliophorus sp, Cyclomyces sp, Lepiota sp, Ceratyomixa.


Moss

Fissidens sp, Leucobryium sp, Plagiomnium sp, Semathophylum sp, Vesicularia sp, Cheilolejeuna sp, Octoblepharon sp, Octoblepharum albidum Hedw, Bazzania sp, Jungermania sp.

Decorative plants

Bulbophylum meduse, Spathoglotis plicata, Drynaria sparsiosa, Drynaria quersifolia, Neprolepis Sp, Asplenium nidus, Lygodium flexuosum, Adiantum philipense, Taenitis blechnoides, Pityrogramma calomelanos, Gleicheniaceae linearis, Alocasia sp, Amorphophalus decussilvae, Amorphophalus oncophylus, Oncosprma tigillarium, Licuala sp, Lantana Camara, Wedelia trilobata, Pandanus odoratissimus, Pandanus tectorius, Pemphis acidula, Ficus benjamina, Casuarina equisetifolia, Lilium sp.

Cultivated medicinal plants

Epyphyllum anguliger, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Catharantus roseus, Piper betle, Procumbens, Andrographis paniculata, Centella asiatica, Alpinia galanga, Orthosiphon spicatus, Zingiber officinale, Kalanchoe pinnata, Piper retrofractum, Tinospora crispa, Pluchea indica, Zingiber purpureum, Psidium guajava, Heliotropium indicum, Eupharbia tirucalli, Curcuma zedoaria, Piper crocatum, Azadirachta indica, Impatiens balsamina, Anredema Cordifolia.

Mammals

Macaca fascicularis karemonjawae, Cervus timorensis, Manis javanica, Tursiops aduncus, Hystrix brachyura, Niviventer cremoriventer, Pteropus vampyrus.

Reptilia

Calloselasma, Phyton reticulatus, Cerberus rhyncorp, Ptyas sp, Bungarus fasciatus, Laticaudacolubrina, Ahaetulla prasina, Dendrelaphis pictus, Draco volans, Mabouya multifascianta, Varanus salvator, Gekko gekko, Cosymbotus platyurus, Hemidactylus frenatus, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricate, Lepidochelys olivachea, Buffo melanoptictus, Hemanthopus sp, Dendaralapi pictus, Ahaetulla sp, Limnocharis sp, Ahaetulla pracina.

Bird

Accipiter jularis, Accipiter virgatus, Bustastur liventer, Haliaeetus leucognaster, Hieraaetus kienerii, Pernis ptilorhynchus, Spizaetus cirrhatus, Mirafra javanica, Alcedo atthis, Halcyon sancta, Pelargopsis capensis, Todirhamphus chloris, Anas gibberifrons, Dendrocygna arcuata, Apus affinis, Apus pacificus, Collocalia esculenta, Hirundapus giganteus, Ardea cinerea, Ardea purpurea, Ardeola bacchus.

Ardeola speciosa, Bubulcus ibis, Butorides striatus, Egretta alba, Egretta garzetta, Egretta intermedia, Egretta sacra, Gallicrex cinerea, Ixobrychus cinnamomeus, Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Ixobrychus flavicollls, Ixobrychus sinensis, Artamus leucorhynchus, Lalage nigra, Charadrius javanicus, Charadrius mongolus, Pluvialis fulva, Pluvialis squatarola, Caloenas nicobarica, Chalcophaps indica, Ducula aenea.

Ducula bicolor, Ducula rosacea, Geopilia striata, Ptilinopus cinctus, Ptilinopus milanospila, Treron vernans, Eurystomus orientalis, Centropus bengalensis, Cuculus sparverioides, Dicaeum trigonostigma, Dicaeum trochileum, Falco moluccensis, Falco peregrinus, Fregata andrewsi, Fregata ariel, Fregata minor, Glareola maldivarum, Hirundo rustica, Hirundo striolata, Hirundo tahitica, Lanius cristatus.

Anthus novaeseelandice, Motacilla flava, Cyanoptila cyanomelana, Cyomis rufigastra, Ficedula mugimaki, Hypothymis azurea, Muscicapa dauurica, Muscicapa sibirica, Rhinomyias umbratillis, Anthreptes malacensis, Arachnothera longirostra, Nectarinia calcostetha, Nectarinia jugularis, Pachycepala grisula, Pandion haliaetus, Lonchura leucophalus, Lonchura punctulata, Passer montanus, Psittacula alexandri.

Pycnonotus atriceps, Pycnonotus goiavier, Amauromis phoenicurus, Porzona cinerea, Himantopus leucophalus, Calidris ruficollis, Limosa lapponica, Numenius madagascariensis, Numenius minutus, Numenius phaeopus, Tringa breripes, Tringa glareola, Tringa hypoleucos, Tringa stagnatilis, Tringa totanus, Acrocephalus orientalis, Gerygone sulphurea, Orthotomus ruficeps, Orthotomus sepium.

Phylloscopus borealis, Prinia familiaris, Prinia inomata, Anous minutus, Anous stolidus, Sterna anaethetus, Sterna bergii, Sterna hirundo, Sterna sumatrana, Acridotheres javanicus, Sula leucogaster, Sula sula, Zosterops chloris, Zosterops flavus, Zosterops palpebrosus.


Butterfly

Amanthosia phidipus, Amnosia genutia, Arthopala sp, Catopsilia pomon, Elymnias hypermnesta, Euploea climena, Euploea crameri karimondjawaensis, Euploea midamus, Euploea sylvester, Eurema ada, Grahium agamemnon, Grahium doson, Hypolymnas bolin, Idealeuconoe karimondjawaensis, Idiopsis juventa, Junonia hedonia, Mycalesia horsfieldi, Nacaduba hermus, Nectalemon zampa, Neptis leucoporos, Nrionota thrax, Papilio memnon, Papilio polytes, Undapes folus, Zanclus canescens.

Insect

Acrida turita, Catantops splenden, Gryllidae sp, Gryllidae sp, Gryllidae sp, Holochlora sp, Oxya japonica, Tetrigidae sp, Trilophidia annulata, Valanga nigricornis, Agriocnemis femina, Agriocnemis pigmea, Anax gutatus gutatus, Crocothemis servilia, Diplacodes trivialis, Neurothelmis terminata, Orthetrum sabina.

Fish

Acanthurus blochii, Acanthurus dussumieri, Acanthurus lineatus, Acanthurus mata, Acanthurus nigricauda, Acanthurus nigrofuscus, Acanthurus pyroferus, Acanthurus thompsoni, Acanthurus triostegus, Acanthurus xanthopterus, Ctenochaetus binotatus, Ctenochaetus striatus, Ctenochaetus strigosus, Ctenochaetus tominensis, Naso brevirostris, Naso lituratus, Naso unicomis, Zebrasoma scopas, Albula glossodonta.

Apogon bandanensis, Apogon compressus, Apogon leptacanthus, Apogon sealei, Apogon trimaculatus, Archamia fucata, Archamia zosterophera, Cheilodipterus artus, Cheilodipterus macrodon, Cheilodipterus quinquilineatus, Sphaeramia nematoptera, Arius thalassinus, Aulostomus chinensis, Abalistes stellaris, Balistapus undulatus, Balistoides niger, Balistoides viridescens, Pseudobalites, Sufflamen bursa.

Suflamen chrysopterus, Sufflamen fraenatus, Strongylura incisa, Tylosaurus crocodilus crocodilus, Atrosalarias sp, Ecsenius bicolor, Meiacanthus grammistes, Meiacanthus smithi, Salaris fasciatus, Valencienna strigata, Caesio caerulaurea, Caesio cunning, Caesio lunaris, Pterocaesio chrysozona, Pterocaesio digramma, Pterocaesio lativittata, Pterocaesio marri, Alectis ciliaris, Alectis indicus, Atule mate.

Carangoides bajad, Carangoides chrysophrys, Carangoides ferdau, Carangoides orthogramus, Carangoides plagiotaenia, Caranx ignobillis, Caranx tille, Decapterus macrosoma, Elagatis bipinnulata, Gnathanodon speciosus, Megalaspis cordyla, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomb eroides commersonnianus, Trachinotus blochii, Aeoliscus strigatus, Psammaoperca waigensis, Chaetodon adlergastos, Chaetodon auriga.

Chaetodon baronessa, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon lineolatus, Chaetodon lunula, Chaetodon melanotus, Chaetodon occelicaudus, Chaetodon octofasciatus, Chaetodon oxycephalus, Chaetodon rafflesi, Chaetodon speculum, Chaetodon trifascialis, Chaetodon trifasciatus, Chaetodon ulietensis, Chaetodon vegabundes, Chaetodon weibeii, Chelmon rostratus, Coradion altivelis, Coradion chrysozonus.

Forcipiger flavissimus, Heniochus acuminatus, Heniochus monoceros, Heniochus pleurotaenia, Heniochus singularis, Heniochus varius, Chirocentris dorab, Dasyatis kuhlil, Taeniura lymma, Diodon histrix, Diodon liturosus, Echeneis sp, Platax pinnatus, Platax teira, Fistularia commersoni, Gerres accinaces, Diademicthys lineatus, Amblygobius rainfordi, Amblygobius phalaena.

Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides, Plectorhincus flavomaculatus, Plectorhincus lessoni, Plectorhincus orientalis, Plectorhincus sp, Plectorhincus picus, Hemirhamphus archipelagius, Hemirhamphus far, Myripristis amaena, Myripristis hexagona, Myripritis kuntee, Myripristis murdjan, Sargocentron comuturn, Sargocentron praslin, Sargocentron sp, Kuhlia mugil, Kyphosus cinerascens, Kyphosus vaigiensis.

Anampses meleagrides, Bodianus axilaris, Bodianus diana, Bodianus mesothorax, Cheilinus celebicus, Cheilinus chlorusus, Cheilinus fasciatus, Cheilinus oxychepalus, Cheilinus undulatus, Cheilinus unifasciatus, Cheilinus trilobatus, Cheorodon anchorago, Chirrhilabrus cyanopleura, Chirrhilabrus exquisitous, Coris aurilineata, Coris batuensis, Coris sp, Diproctacanthus xanthurus, Epibulus insidiator.

Gomphosus varius, Halichoeres argus, Halichoeres chloropterus, Halichoeres chrysus, Halichoeres hortulanus, Halichoeres leucurus, Halichoeres margaritaceous, Halichoeres marginatus, Halichoeres melanochir, Halichoeres melanurus, Halichoeres omatissimus, Halichoeres papilionacerus, Halichoeres prosoprion, Halichoeres purpurescens, Halichoeres richmondi, Halichoeres scapularis, Halichoeres vrolikii.

Hemigymnus fasciatus, Hemigymnus melapterus, Lab richthys unilineatus, Lab roides dimidiatus, Lab roides australis, Lab ropsis xanthonota, Macropharyngodon meleagris, Oxychellinus celebicus, Oxychellinus diagrammus, Oxychellinus unifasciatus, Paracheilinus filamentosus, Pseudocoris yamashiroi, Pseudodax moluccanus, Pteragogus cryptus, Stethojulis bandanensis, Stethojulis trilineata.

Thalasoma amblycephalum, Thalasoma hardwicki, Thalasoma janseni, Thalasoma lunare, Leiognathus equulus, Gymnocraenius euanus, Gymnocraenius griseus, Gymnocraenius microdon, Lethrinus olivaceous, Lethrinus omatus, Lethrinus barbonicus, Lethrinus erytharacanthus, Lethrinus erythropterus, Lethrinus harak, Lethrinus olbsoletus, Lethrinus xantochilus, Monotaxis grandoculis, Lutjanus adetii.

Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Lutjanus biguttatus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus carponatus, Lutjanus decussatus, Lutjanus fulviflamma, Lutjanus kasmira, Lutjanus monostigma, Lutjanus quinquelineatus, Lutjanus sebae, Symphorichtys spilurus, Symphorus nematophorus, Ptereleotris evides, Aluterus cryptus, Cantherhines pardalis, Oxymonocanthus longirostris, Crenimugil crenilabis, Mulloidichthys flavoneatus.

Parupeneus barberinus, Parupeneus bifasciatus, Parupeneus cyclostomus, Parupeneus indicus, P. multifasciatus, Upeneus tragula, Gymnothorax javanicus, Gymnothorax meleagris, Nemipterus peronii, Pentapodus caninus, Pentapodus emeryi, Pentapodus trivittatus, Scolopsis affinis, Scolopsis bilineata, Scolopsis ciliatus, Scolopsis lineatus, Scolopsis margaritifer, Scolopsis monogramma, Scolopsis trilineata.

Ostracion cubicus, Ostracion meleagris, Ostracion solorensis, Pempheris vanicolensis, Pempheris oualensis, Cymbacephalus beauforti, Samariscus triocellatus, Centropyge eibli, Centropyge nox, Centropyge tibicens, Centropyge vroliki, Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus, Pomacanthus annularis, Pomacanthus sexstriatus, Pygoplites diacanthus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Abudefduf sexfasciatus.

Abudefduf vaigiensis, Amblyglyphidodon aureus, Amblyglyphidodon cf. curacao, Amblyglyphidodon curacao, Amblyglyphidodon leucogaster, Amblyglyphidodon ternatensis, Amphiprion clarki, Amphiprion ocellaris, Amphiprion perideraion, Amphiprion labiatus, Chelioprion labiatus, Chromis alpha, Chromisa amboinensis, Chromis atripectoralis, Chromis cinerascens, Chromis lepidolepis.

Chromis margaritifera, Chromis retrofasciatus, Chromis tematensis, Chromis weberi, Chromis xanthura, Chrysiptera brownrigii, Chrysiptera cyanea, Chrysiptera rex, Chrysiptera rollandi, Chrysiptera springeri, Chrysiptera talboti, Chrysiptera unimaculata, Dasyllus aruanus, Dasyllus melanurus, Dasyllus reticulatus, Dasyllus trimaculatus, Dischistodus chrysopoecilus, Dischistodus melanotus.

Dischistodus perspicillatus, Dischistodus prosopotaenia, Hemiglyphidodon plagiometapon, Neoglyphidodon melas, Neoglyphidodon nigroris, Neoglyphidodon oxyodon, Neopomacentrus anabatoides, Neopomacentrus azysron, Neopomacentrus cyanomus, Plectroglyphiododon lacrymatus, Pomacentrus adelus, Pomacentrus alexanderae, Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentrus auriventris.

Pomacentrus bankanensis, Pomacentrus brachialis, Pomacentrus burroughi, Pomacentrus caeruleus, Pomacentrus chrysurus, Pomacentrus coeletis, Pomacentrus grammorhynchus, Pomacentrus lapidogenus, Pomacentrus melanochir, Pomacentrus molluccensis, Pomacentrus philippinus, Pomacentrus simsiang, Pomacentrus vaiuli, Premnas biaculeatus, Stegastes albifasciatus, Stegastes apicalis, Stegastes c.f. lividus.

Stegastes lividus, Stegastes obreptus, Cypho purpurescens, Pseudochromis fuscus, Pseudochromis paccagnea, Peudochromis sp.A, Rhynchobatus muricatum, B. muricatum, Cetoscarus bicolor, Chlorourus microrhinus, Chlororus bleekeri, Clorurus bowersi, Chlororus pyrrhurus, Chlororus sordidus, Hipposcarus longiceps, Scarus altipinnes, Scarus dimidatus, Scarus flavipictoralis, Scarus forsteni, Scarus fraenatus.

Scarus ghobban, Scarus hypselopterus, Scarus niger, Scarus oviceps, Scarus prasiognathus, Scarus psittacus, Scarus quoyyi, Scarus rivulatus, Scarus rubroviolaceus, Scarus scheleigeli, Scarus spinus, Scarus tricolor, Scarus viridifucatus, Euthynnus affinis, Rastreliger kanagurta, Scomberomorus commerson, Selaroides leptolepis, Thunus alalunga, Pteoris antennata, Pteoris volitans.

Aethaloperca rogaa, Anyperodon leucogrammicus, Cephalopholis argus, Cephalopholis boenak, Cephalopholis cyanostigmus, Cephalopholis leopardus, Cephalopholis microprion, Cephalopholis sexmaculatus, Cephalopholis sonnerati, Cephalopholis urodeta, Cromileptes altivelis, Diplorion bifasciatum, Epinephalus fasciatus, Epinephalus hexagonatus, Epinephalus macrospilos, Epinephelus merra.

Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus corallicola, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Epinephelus ongus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, Epinephelus quoyanus, Epinephelus tukula, Plectropomus areolatus, Plectropomus laevis, Plectropomus leopardus, Plectropomus maculatus, Plectropomus oligacanthus, Siganus argenteus, Siganus canaliculatus, Siganus coralinus, Siganus doliatus, Siganus funescens, Siganus guttatus.

Siganus puellus, Siganus punctatissimus, Siganus punctatus, Siganus spinus, Siganus unimaculatus, Siganus vermiculatus, Siganus virgatus, Siganus vulpinus, Sphyraena baracuda, Sphyraena flavicauda, Corythoichthes intestinalis, Doryrhampus dactyliophorus, Synodus vareigatus, Terapon jarbua, Arothron mappa, Arothron nigropuncantus, Zanclus cornutus.


Hard coral or Anthozoa

Acropora aspera, Acropora astreata, Aacropora azurea, Acropora cuneata, Acropora digitifera, Acropora divericata, Acropora echinata, Acropora formosa, Acropora gemifera, Acropora granulosa, Acropora horrida, Acropora humilis, Acropora hyachintus, Acropora latistella, Acropora longicyathus, Acropora loripes, Acropora lovelli, Acropora millepora, Acropora nasuta, Acropora nobilis, Acropora pallida.

Acropora paniculata, Acropora palifera, Acropora pulchra, Acropora robusta, Acropora sarmentosa, Acropora secale, Acropora selago, Acropora tenuis, Acropora verweyi, Asteopora myriophthaima, Asteopora sp, Montipora aequituberculata, Montipora astreata, Montipora caliculata, Montipora crusting, Montipora danae, Montipora digitata, Montipora foliosa, Montipora grisae, Montipora hispida.

Montipora millepora, Montipora peltata, Montipora peltiformis, Montifora sp, Montifora spumosa, Montifora squamosa, Montifora tuberculosa, Montifora verrucosa, Gardineroseris planulata, Leptoseris explanata, Leptoseris hawaiienis, Leptoseris mycetoseroides, Leptoseris scabra, Leptoseris sp, Pachyseris abdita, Pachyseris rugosa, Pachyseris speciosa, Pavona cactus, Pavona clavus.

Pavona Varians, Pavona renosa, Pavona Explanulata, Euphyllia ancora, Euphyllia cristata, Euphyllia glabrescens, Physogyra daedalea, Physogyra lichtensteini, Plerogyra sinuosa, Tubastraea sp, Turbinaria mesenterina, Turbinaria sp, Chypastrea chalcidium, Chypastrea microphthaima, Chypastrea serailia, Diploastrea heliopora, Echinopora gemmacea, Echinopora horrida, Echinopora lamellosa, Echinopora sp.

Favites abdita, Favia chinensis, Favia laxa, Favia lizardensis, Favia matthali, Favia maxima, Favia pallide, Favia pentagona, Favia rotundata, Favia stelligera, Faviaveronili, Favites chinensis, Favites complananta, Favites holicora, Favites pentagona, Goniastrea aspera, Goniastrea edwarsi, Goniastrea pectinata, Goniastrea retiformis, Hydnopora exsesa, Hydnopora pilosa, Hydnopora rigida.

Leptastrea purpurea, Leptastrea scabra, Leptastrea transvera, Mostastrea curta, Mostastrea sp, Platygyra daedelea, Platygyra sinensis, Oulophylia bennetae, Oulophylia cryspa, Fungia fungites, Fungia repanda, Fungia scutaria, Fungia simplek, Fungia sp, Fungia valida, Halomitra pieleus, Halomitra actiniformis, Herpolitha limax, Herpolitha edwarsi, Herpolitha sp, Sandalolita robusta, Lithophyllon sp.

Polyphilia sp, Podobacia crustacea, Ctenactis echinata, Clavarina echinata, Clavarina scabricula, Merulina ampliata, Lobophylia corymbose, Lobophylia hempricii, Acanthastrea echinata, Lobophylia hataii, Lobophylia sp, Symphyllia agaricia, Symphyllia recta, Symphyllia sp, Galaxea astreata, Galaxea fas, Archelia horescens, Echinophylia aspera, Echinophylia lacera, Echinophylia orpheensis, Echinophylia sp.

Mycedium elephantotus, Oxypora lacera, Oxypora glabra, Pectinia alcicomis, Pectinia lactuca, Pectinia lucta, Pectinia paeonia, Pocillopora damicormis, Pocillopora meandrina, Pocillopora verrucosa, Pocillopora eydouxi, Seriatopora verrucosa, Stylophora pistillata, Psammocora digitata, Psammocora sp, Psammocora superficialis, Alveopora asemblace, Alveopora sp, Alveopora spongiosa.

Alveopora verriliana, Goniopora djiboutensis, Goniopora lebata, Goniopora minor, Goniopora retiformis, Goniopora sp, Goniopora renuidens, Porites cylindrica, Porites danae, Porites lichen, Porites lobata, Porites lutea, Porites nigrescens, Porites rus, Porites sp, Coeloseris mayeri, Ouphyta solar, Pseudosi derastrea.


Soft coral or non-scerectinian

Lob ophyton sp, Sarcophyton sp, Sinularia sp, Antiphates sp, Tubipora mussica, Junceella fragillis, Heliopora coeruela, Millepora tennela, Millepora sp, Distichopora sp, Dendronepthythya sp, Lemnalia sp, Siphonogorgia sp, Echinogorgia sp, Subergorgia moilis, Xenia sp, Entacmaea quadricolor, Macrodactyla doreensis, Stichodactyla gigantea, Stichodactyla haddoni, Stichodactyla mertensii, Amplexidiscus fenestrafer, Metharhodactis sp.

Marine invertebrates

Pseudoceros bedfordi, Pseudoceros sp, Sabellidae sp, Spirobranchus giganteus, Astraea rhodustoma, Casis comuta, Chantarus undsus, Chicoreus torrefactus, Chromodoris annae, Chromodoris elizabethina, Chromodoris sp, Chronia tritonis, Conus circumcisus, Conus episcopus, Conus testulatus, Conus vexillum, Coralliophila neritoidea, Coralliophila radula, Cypraea annulus, Cypraea arabica.

Cypraea asellus, Cypraea cameola, Cypraea scurra, Cypraea talpa, Cypraea teres, Cypraea tigris, Drupa rubusiadaeus, Fryaria ruppeli, Haustellum haustellum, Hexabranchus sanguineus eggs, Lambis scorplus, Lambis truncatus, Melo broderipii, Murex pecten, Neritopsis radula, Pengypta reticulatus, Phenacovolva rosea, Phylidia sp, Phylidia vericosa, Platydoris sp, Polinices melanostoma, Polinices pyriformes.

Pseudovertogus nobilis, Rhinoclavis vergatus, Strombus radiatus, Strombus urceus, Telebralia sulcata, Tracycardium orbita, Trochus maculatus, Trochus niloticus, Turbo petholatus, Hippopus hippopus, Tridacna crocea, Tridacna maxima, Tridacna squamosa, Hyotissa hyotis, Hyotissa sp, Pedum spondyloideum, Atrina pectinia, Sepia latimanus, Sepia sp, Sepia pharanois, Nautilus pompilus.

Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Octopus sp, Octopus cyanea, Alappa calappa, Panulirus versicolor, Panulirus marginatus, Thenus orientalis, Lepas testudinata, Echinaster luzonicus, Fromia milleporella, Fromia monilis, Fromia sp, Nardoa sp, Nardoa tuberculata, Linckia laevigata, Culcita novaguineae, Diadema setosum, Diadema savignyi, Echinometra mathaei, Echinometrix calamaris, Echinostephurus sp.

Toxopneutes plleus, Clypeaster sp, Acanthaster plancii, Holothuria argus, Holothuria atra, Holothuria edulis, Holothuria nobilis, Holothuria scabra, Holothuria vagabunda, Holothuria leucospilota, Actinopyga miliaris, Bohadschia argus, Bohadschia goeffeyi, Bohadschia sp, Bohadscia teunissima, Stichopus chloronotus, Stichopus vareigatus, Synapta maculata.


Porifera or sponge

Acanthella sp, Callyspongia sp, Cinachyra sp, Clathria sp, Cribochalina sp, Cribochalina olemda, Cliona sp, Lathria vulpina, Carteriopongia sp, Dysidea sp, Gelliodes sp, Halyclona sp, Lanthella basta, Jaspis sp, Kallypilidion, Paratetilla sp, Plakinalopha mirabilis, Plakortis sp, Phakellia sp, Spheciospongia sp, Strongylophora sp, Steletta sp, Stylissa, Thaysias sp, Theonella sp, Theorectandra sp, Xetospongia sp.

Macrozoobenthos mangrove forest

Penaidae, Scyllaridae, Uca sp, Crinoidea, Cerithidopsilla cingulata, Cerithium corallium, Cerithidopsillum angulatum, Littorina scabra scabra, Gafrarium dusum, Gafrarium sp, Gafrarium dispar, Gafrarium tumidum, Strombus sp, Strombus labiatus, Anadara inflata, Pitar citrinus, Pitar vellucidus, Geloina (Polymesoda) sp.

Terebralia sulcata, Phadia sp, Chicoreus caoucinus, Lioconcha oinata, Barbatia sp, Anodontia edentula, Austriella corrugata, Telescopium telescopium, Rhinoclavis, Lambis sp, Vexillum rugosum, Parimalleus rex, Isognomon isognomum, Tellina timoroensis, Mitra sp, Cymatium caudatum, Capitellidae, Sipunculidae.

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God is tools

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A. muelleri has pseudo stems and leaves that are bright green to dark green and have greenish white patches. The surface of the stalk is smooth, while the leaves are smooth wavy. Ellipse-shaped leaves with pointed tips.


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